George Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen
George Islay MacNeill Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen, Labour Party who served as the 10th Secretary General of NATO from 1999 to 2004; he succeeded Javier Solana. He served as Secretary of State for Defence from 1997 to 1999, before becoming a life peer being created Baron Robertson of Port Ellen, of Islay in Argyll and Bute, on 24 August 1999.(born 12 April 1946), is a British politician of the
The Lord Robertson of Port Ellen
|10th Secretary General of NATO|
14 October 1999 – 5 January 2004
|Preceded by||Javier Solana|
|Succeeded by||Jaap de Hoop Scheffer|
|Secretary of State for Defence|
3 May 1997 – 11 October 1999
|Prime Minister||Tony Blair|
|Preceded by||Michael Portillo|
|Succeeded by||Geoff Hoon|
|Shadow Secretary of State for Scotland|
21 October 1993 – 2 May 1997
Margaret Beckett (Acting)
|Preceded by||Tom Clarke|
|Succeeded by||Jacqui Lait (2001)|
|Member of the House of Lords|
|Assumed office |
3 February 2000
|Member of Parliament|
for Hamilton South
31 May 1978 – 24 August 1999
|Preceded by||Alexander Wilson|
|Succeeded by||William Tynan|
George Islay MacNeill Robertson
12 April 1946
Port Ellen, Argyll, Scotland
|Alma mater||University of Dundee|
Born in Port Ellen, Isle of Islay, Scotland, the son of George Philip Robertson (1916–2002), a policeman and Marion Isabella Robertson Nee MacNeill (1913–1996). His mother taught French and German, and he was educated at Dunoon Grammar School and studied economics at the Queen's College, Dundee. When he was 15 years of age, he was involved with protests against US nuclear submarines docking in Scotland.
During Robertson's time at Queen's College it broke away from the University of St Andrews to become the University of Dundee, of which Robertson was one of the first graduates (MA, 1968), and one of a minority of graduates that year who opted to take a Dundee, rather than a St Andrews, degree. During his time at University he played a full part in student life. He wrote a column for the student newspaper Annasach, launched in 1967, and took an active role in student protests. Robertson used his newspaper column to back the new University and encouraged his fellow students to take a University of Dundee degree (students who had started before 1967 could opt to take a degree from either the University of Dundee or the University of St Andrews).
In 1968, Robertson was one of a number of Dundee students to invade the pitch during a rugby match at St Andrews involving a team from the Orange Free State to protest against apartheid. The same year he organised a 24-hour work-in by students in the university library in opposition to proposed cuts by the government in student grants.
Robertson survived a serious car crash on 19 January 1976 when a Navy Land Rover, which was carrying 100 lb (45 kg) of gelignite and a box of detonators, hit his car head-on in the Drumochter Pass, one mile south of Dalwhinnie leaving him with two wrecked knees and a broken jaw. In May 1976 the driver of the Land Rover was found guilty of careless driving. Robertson was wearing a seat belt at the time and attributes his survival to this factor.
Robertson first entered the House of Commons as a Labour MP in 1978, after having won the Hamilton by-election in May of that year, caused by the death of the incumbent Labour MP Alex Wilson in March of that year. He was challenged for the seat by the SNP candidate, Margo MacDonald, who came second. Robertson retained the constituency with an increased majority and obtained 51% of the overall vote. He was re-elected to Parliament at the five subsequent general elections, was Chairman of the Labour Party in Scotland, and was appointed to the Privy Council.
After Labour won the 1997 general election, Robertson was appointed Secretary of State for Defence. He initiated the Strategic Defence Review, which was completed in 1998, presenting a coherent political and strategic narrative themed as 'a force for good'. The review created the Joint Rapid Reaction Force and inaugurated the ambitious project to build two new large aircraft carriers for force projection, the Queen Elizabeth-class, and its new warplanes, symbolising the new government's commitment to defence. However the new Labour government had come to power promising to follow the previous Conservative government's spending plans for its first two years, and this required a defence budget cut of £2 billion. Though the defence budget was subsequently expanded, it was not sufficient for the increased ambitions of the review. Tom Sawyer in his book on that government characterised the situation as "Robertson had created an unaffordable dream in 1998."
In 1999, Robertson was appointed as Secretary General of NATO after the German defence minister Rudolf Scharping declined to be nominated for the position, and doubts were raised about the suitability of British politician and former Royal Marine Paddy Ashdown (at that time the outgoing leader of the Liberal Democrats) due to his never having held a position in government.
Quote on devolution
In 1995, Robertson, while he was Shadow Secretary of State for Scotland said, "Devolution will kill Nationalism stone dead". This quote was designed to assuage hopes that devolution would provide a greater platform for the Scottish National Party (SNP). Robertson's quote is frequently recalled, usually in a mocking fashion, since the SNP won Scottish Parliament elections in 2007, 2011 and 2016.
Dunblane libel action
Robertson's three children are former pupils of the school in Dunblane where gunman Thomas Hamilton murdered 16 children and their teacher in 1996. After the massacre, Robertson, a long-time resident of the town, acted as a spokesman for the victims' families. He was also a key figure in the subsequent campaign that led to the ban on handguns in Great Britain.
In 2003, the Sunday Herald newspaper ran an article entitled "Should the Dunblane dossier be kept secret?", a reference to documents relating to the Cullen Inquiry into the massacre which are to remain classified for 100 years. In a discussion board on the newspaper's website, anonymous contributors claimed that Robertson had signed a recommendation for a gun licence for Thomas Hamilton in his capacity as Hamilton's MP. However, Robertson had never been the gunman's MP, and the claims were unfounded. Robertson sued the Sunday Herald and the paper settled by paying him a five-figure sum plus costs. A subsequent action by Robertson, related to the terms of the newspaper's apology, was unsuccessful. The first case became an important test case as to whether publishers can be held responsible for comments posted on their websites.
Independence referendum interventions
Robertson opposed Scottish independence in the 2014 referendum. In an article in The Washington Post, he wrote: "The residual United Kingdom would still be a major player in the world, but upon losing a third of its land mass, 5 million of its population and a huge amount of credibility, its global standing would inevitably diminish."
He said in a speech to the Brookings Institution on 8 April 2014: "The loudest cheers for the break-up of Britain would be from our adversaries and from our enemies. For the second military power in the west to shatter this year would be cataclysmic in geo-political terms." Robertson also likened the efforts of Unionists to keep Scotland tied to the UK with those of Abraham Lincoln's fight against slavery when he stated, "they might look more relevantly at the Civil War where hundreds of thousands of Americans perished in a war to keep the new Union together. To Lincoln and his compatriots the Union was so precious, so important, and its integrity so valuable that rivers of blood would be spilt to keep it together."
Robertson has received numerous honours (including a total of 12 Honorary doctorates from various universities).
In addition, he is a Senior Counsellor at The Cohen Group, a consulting firm in Washington D.C. that provides advice and assistance in marketing and regulatory affairs.
Robertson is a supporter of Hamilton Academicals.
- 1968–1978, Official of the GMB Union for the Scottish whisky industry.
- 1978–1999, Member of the British House of Commons, member for Hamilton or Hamilton South, elected six times.
- 1979, Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for Social Services.
- 1979–??, Opposition Spokesman on Scottish Affairs.
- 19??–82, Opposition Spokesman on Defence.
- 1982–93, Opposition Spokesman on Foreign Affairs.
- 1983–93, Chief Opposition Spokesman on Europe.
- 1993–97, Shadow Secretary of State for Scotland.
- May 1997, Appointed to the Privy Council
- May 1997 – October 1999, Defence Secretary of the United Kingdom
- October 1999 – January 2004, 10th Secretary General of NATO and Chairman of the North Atlantic Council.
Other former or present posts
- Chairman of the Labour Party in Scotland
- Vice-chairman of the Westminster Foundation for Democracy
- Vice-Chairman of the British Council for nine years
- Vice-Chairman of the Britain-Russia Centre
- Member of the Council of the Royal Institute of International Affairs (Chatham House) seven years, now President
- Member of the Pilgrims Society
- Governor of the Ditchley Foundation
- Trustee of the 21st Century Trust
- Patron to the British-American Project
- Currently serves on the board of Cable & Wireless International
- Currently serves on the board of The Weir Group PLC
- Currently serves on the board of The TNK-BP
- Currently serves on the Global Panel Foundation|Global Panel America Advisory Board
- Currently a member of the Top Level Group of UK Parliamentarians for Multilateral Nuclear Disarmament and Non-proliferation, established in October 2009.
- Hon president of the Clan Donnachaidh Society
Honours and awards
- 2003 Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG)
- 30 November 2004 Knight of the Order of the Thistle (KT)
- 1 July 2016 Order of St. George (KT)
- Foreign Honours
- 1991 Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
- 2000 Grand Cross of the Order of the Star of Romania
- 8 September 2003 Knight Grand Cross of the Order of Orange-Nassau
- 12 November 2003 Presidential Medal of Freedom
- 1 December 2003 - Grand Order of King Petar Krešimir IV
- 2004 Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana
- 1993 joint Parliamentarian of the Year for his role in the Maastricht Treaty ratification
- 2000 Golden Plate Award of the American Academy of Achievement presented by General Joseph Ralston, USAF, Supreme Allied Commander Europe.
- 2003 Atlantic Solidarity Award bestowed by the Manfred Wörner Foundation
- 4th recipient of the Hanno R. Ellenbogen Citizenship Award
- Elder Brother of Trinity House
- 24 August 1999 life peer as Baron Robertson of Port Ellen
- Member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom (PC)
- 5 July 2006 Honorary Doctorate from the University of Paisley
- Honorary Doctorate from the University of Dundee
- Honorary Doctorate from the University of Bradford
- Honorary Doctorate from Cranfield University (Royal Military College of Science)
- Honorary Doctorate from the Baku State University
Honorary military appointments
- Honorary Regimental Colonel of the London Scottish (Volunteers)
- "No. 55596". The London Gazette. 31 August 1999. p. 9355.
- "No. 24663". The Edinburgh Gazette. 27 August 1999. p. 1821.
- "The Lord of the isles". The Scotsman. 27 August 2006. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "General Election Special 2". Archives Records and Artefacts at the University of Dundee. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
- "Student protests at Dundee". Archives Records and Artefacts at the University of Dundee. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
- "Making Contact. 12 decades of staff and student magazines" (PDF). Contact: 27. June 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- Baxter, Kenneth, Rolfe, Mervyn and Swinfen, David (2007). A Dundee Celebration. Dundee: University of Dundee. p. 34.
- Baxter, Kenneth, Rolfe, Mervyn and Swinfen, David (2007). A Dundee Celebration. Dundee: University of Dundee. p. 35.
- "In sickness and in health but not in tow". The Herald (Glasgow). 11 September 1996. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- Aberdeen Press and Journal - 19 May 1976
- Aberdeen Press and Journal - 20 January 1976
- Grove, Valerie (11 February 1998). "Black sheep plays the white knight - Interview". The Times (London). Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- NATO (6 January 2004). "NATO Secretary General (1999–2003) The Rt. Hon. Lord Robertson of Port Ellen". Who is who at NATO?. NATO. Retrieved 22 February 2007.
- Strategic Defence Review (PDF) (Report). Ministry of Defence. July 1998. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 October 2012. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Michael Ashcroft; Isabel Oakeshott (2018). White Flag?: An Examination of the UK's Defence Capability. Biteback Publishing. ISBN 9781785904196.
- Bower, Tom (2016). Broken Vows : Tony Blair : the Tragedy of Power. Faber & Faber. pp. 407–409. ISBN 9780571314201.
- Fitchett, Joseph (15 July 1999). "Paddy Ashdown of Britain Is Seen by Some As Leading Candidate for Secretary-General : Hunt for NATO Chief Moves Into New Phase". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- Ulbrich, Jeffrey (16 July 1999). "Secretary-general sought by NATO". Amarillo Globe-News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 19 April 2014. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- Whitney, Craig R. (31 July 1999). "Britain Nominates Its Defense Secretary to Be Head of NATO". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- Warner, Gerald (6 May 2007). "How Bulldog Brown could call Braveheart Salmond's bluff". Scotland on Sunday. Edinburgh. Retrieved 6 May 2007.
- Devine, Tom (11 May 2008). "Old Scotland took the high road. New Scotland is upwardly mobile". The Independent. London. Retrieved 17 September 2008.
- Watt, Nicholas (6 May 2011). "Tony Blair's Scottish nightmare comes true as Alex Salmond trounces Labour". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- "Q&A: Scottish independence referendum". BBC News. 29 May 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
The 2011 result has blown out of the water the claim once made by Labour veteran Lord Robertson that devolution would "kill nationalism stone dead" - ironically, Labour, the party which set up devolution - has never managed to gain the overall majority achieved by the SNP.
- "Robertson driven by 'a safer world'". BBC News. 4 August 1999. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- McDougall, Dan (October 2005). "Robertson sues over Dunblane killer allegations". The Dunbane Shootings and Gun Law. Martin Frost. Archived from the original on 14 March 2007. Retrieved 22 February 2007.
- Thompson, Bill (10 September 2004). "Be careful what you say on the net". BBC News. Retrieved 22 February 2007.
- Robertson, George (5 January 2014). "Scotland secession could lead to re-Balkanization of Europe". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- "Scottish independence: Lord Robertson says Yes vote 'would be cataclysmic'". BBC News. 8 April 2014. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- Fred Dews (7 April 2014). "Lord George Robertson: Forces of Darkness Would Love Scottish Split from United Kingdom". Brookings.edu. Brookings Institution. Retrieved 1 April 2016.
- "putting on a front George Robertson may seem rather priggish, but what lies behind the inscrutable facade of the man deemed to be the most powerful Scotsman in the world?". The Herald (Glasgow). 10 June 2000. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
- Borger, Julian (8 September 2009). "Nuclear-free world ultimate aim of new cross-party pressure group". The Guardian. London.
- [dead link]
- "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". www.achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement.
- Debrett's Peerage. 2011.