Germany–Serbia relations


Germany–Serbia relations are foreign relations between Germany and Serbia. Both countries established diplomatic relations on 18 January 1879. Germany has an embassy in Belgrade. Serbia has an embassy in Berlin and five general consulates (in Frankfurt, Hamburg, Munich, Stuttgart and Düsseldorf).[1][2] There are around 505,000 people of Serbian descent living in Germany.[3] Germany is a European Union member state and Serbia is a European Union candidate.

Germany–Serbia relations

Germany

Serbia

History


The 1189 Meeting of Stefan Nemanja and Frederick Barbarossa (19th century) by Kosta Mandrović
Milan Stojadinović, Prime Minister of Yugoslavia, and Konstantin von Neurath, Reichsminister of Foreign Affairs, 1938
Left: Jacob Grimm, member of the SANU
Right: Ivo Andrić, Yugoslavia's ambassador to Germany

The origin of Serbian-German relations can be traced to the Middle Ages. Serbian Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja and Emperor Frederick I had a meeting in modern-day Niš in the 12th century.[4] During the rise of Serbian medieval state, Saxon miners were brought to Serbia in order to further expand the mining industry, which was the main source of wealth and power of Serbian rulers. Saxons were given certain privileges for their work.[5]

Culture of Serbs in Habsburg Monarchy was largely influenced by German culture, and a part of Serbs were subjected to Germanisation. Due to German influences and several other reasons, Serb cultural model was reshaped and looked up to those of countries of Central Europe.[6]

The Principality and the Kingdom of Serbia held strong relations with Germany. Most Serbian engineers and technical experts were educated in Germany or in German-speaking countries, and German was the required language in related higher education institutions.[7] Munich was an important education center for Serb painters. German architects also influenced the Architecture of Serbia.[8] Serbian civil and trade laws, as well as organisation of University of Belgrade, was influenced by German models.[9]

Relations of the two countries were on a very low level after the World War I, but trading and joint businesses never stopped.

In the interwar period, German political and cultural influence became less relevant, as France became the primary influence on Kingdom of Yugoslavia, and French culture was favored by Serb elites.[9] A total of 62 PhD theses were defended by Serbian intellectuals in the German language between the two world wars, of which 31 were in the domain of economics. A number of students of the University of Belgrade held German scholarships in the 1930s. Between 1937 and 1940, around 50 Yugoslav citizens studied in Germany, second only to France in the number of foreign students. A number of professors obtained their postgraduate degrees in Germany as well.[10]

Country comparison


Germany Serbia
Population 81,799,600 7,120,666
Area 357,021 km2 (137,847 sq mi) 77,474 km2 (29,913 sq mi ) (not including Kosovo[a])
Population density 229/km2 (593/sq mi) 89/km2m2 (230.5/sq mi)
Capital Berlin Belgrade
Largest city Berlin – 3,471,756 (6,000,000 Metro) Belgrade – 1,640,000 (2,000,000 Metro)
Government Federal parliamentary constitutional republic Parliamentary republic
Current Leader President Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Chancellor Angela Merkel
President Aleksandar Vučić
Prime Minister Ana Brnabić
Official languages German Serbian (official provincial languages: Slovak, Hungarian, Romanian, Rusyn, Croatian)
Main religions 30.0% Catholic Christians, 29.9% Protestant Christians,
1.6% Eastern Orthodox Christians, 4.6% to 5.2% Islam
84.1% Eastern Orthodoxy, 6.24% Roman Catholicism, 3.62% Islam,
2% Protestantism, 5.4% other
Ethnic groups 80.7% Germans, 2.0% Poles, 4.0% Turks and 3.6% European other
(most notably Southern Europeans, Western Europeans and former Yugoslavians)
83% Serbs, 4% Hungarians, 2% Bosniaks,
1.5% Roma, 1% Yugoslavs, 1% Slovaks, 10% other
GDP (nominal) US$3.577 trillion ($43,741 per capita) $50.061 billion ($6,781 per capita)

Notes


^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008. Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently (this note self-updates) recognized as an independent state by 98 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 113 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.

See also


References


  1. "Serbian embassy in Berlin (in German and Serbian only)". Embassy of Serbia, Berlin. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  2. "Serbian general consulates in Germany (in German and Serbian only)". Konzulati-rs.de. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
  3. (See also Germans of Serbia, Serbs in Germany)
  4. Zbornik Radova Instituta Za Strane Jezike i Književnosti (in Serbian). Institut. 1986.
  5. Katančević, Andreja (4 February 2016). "DA LI SU SASI IMALI PRIVILEGIJE U MEŠOVITIM SPOROVIMA U SREDNJOVEKOVNOJ SRBIJI?". Anali Pravnog fakulteta u Beogradu - Časopis za pravne i društvene nauke (in Serbian). 63 (2). ISSN 2406-2693.
  6. Gašić 2005, p. 7.
  7. Kostić, Đorđe S. (2003). "Nemački tehničari i zanatlije u Srbiji. Tragovi njihovog delovanja u tehničkoj terminologiji Srba". Srbi I Nemci, Tradicije Zajedništva Protiv Predrasuda.
  8. Gašić 2005, p. 73.
  9. Gašić 2005, p. 8.
  10. Gašić 2005.

Sources


  • Gašić, Ranka (2005). Beograd u hodu ka Evropi: Kulturni uticaji Britanije i Nemačke na beogradsku elitu 1918–1941. Belgrade: Institut za savremenu istoriju. ISBN 86-7403-085-8.