Germany

Germany (German: Deutschland, pronounced [ˈdɔʏtʃlant] (listen)), officially the Federal Republic of Germany,[lower-alpha 5] is a country in Central Europe. It is the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is situated between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south; covering an area of 357,022 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), with a population of over 83 million within its 16 constituent states. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czechia to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west. The nation's capital and largest city is Berlin, and its financial centre is Frankfurt; the largest urban area is the Ruhr.

Federal Republic of Germany
Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German)
Anthem: "Deutschlandlied"[lower-alpha 1]
(English: "Song of Germany")
Location of Germany (dark green)

 in Europe (light green & dark grey)
 in the European Union (light green)

Capital
and largest city
Berlin[lower-alpha 2]
52°31′N 13°23′E
Official language
and national language
German[lower-alpha 3]
Demonym(s)German
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic
 President
Frank-Walter Steinmeier
Angela Merkel
Legislature
Bundesrat
Bundestag
Formation
18 January 1871
9 November 1918
23 March 1933
23 May 1949
3 October 1990
Area
 Total
357,022 km2 (137,847 sq mi)[4] (63rd)
 Water (%)
1.27 (as of 2015)[5]
Population
 2020 estimate
83,190,556[6] (18th)
 Density
232/km2 (600.9/sq mi) (58th)
GDP (PPP)2021 estimate
 Total
$4.743 trillion[7] (5th)
 Per capita
$56,956[7] (15th)
GDP (nominal)2021 estimate
 Total
$4.319 trillion[7] (4th)
 Per capita
$51,860[7] (15th)
Gini (2019) 29.7[8]
low
HDI (2019) 0.947[9]
very high · 6th
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving sideright
ISO 3166 codeDE
Internet TLD.de

Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity. A region named Germania was documented before AD 100. In the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. Following the Napoleonic Wars and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the German Confederation was formed in 1815. In 1871, Germany became a nation-state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the semi-presidential Weimar Republic. The Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, World War II, and the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Germany was divided into the Federal Republic of Germany, generally known as West Germany, and the German Democratic Republic, East Germany. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community and the European Union, while the German Democratic Republic was a communist Eastern Bloc state and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the fall of communism, German reunification saw the former East German states join the Federal Republic of Germany on 3 October 1990—becoming a federal parliamentary republic.

Germany is a great power with a strong economy; it has the largest economy in Europe, the world's fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the fifth-largest by PPP. As a global leader in several industrial, scientific and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods. As a developed country, which ranks very high on the Human Development Index, it offers social security and a universal health care system, environmental protections, and a tuition-free university education. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, and the OECD. It has the third-greatest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.