Ghana

Ghana (/ˈɡɑːnə/ (listen)), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa.[9] It abuts the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean to the south, sharing borders with the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, and Togo in the east.[10] Ghana covers an area of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), spanning diverse biomes that range from coastal savannas to tropical rain forests. With over 31 million people, Ghana is the second-most populous country in West Africa, after Nigeria.[11] The capital and largest city is Accra; other major cities are Kumasi, Tamale, and Sekondi-Takoradi.

Republic of Ghana
Gaana Adehyeman  (Akan)
Motto: "Freedom and Justice"
Anthem: "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana"
Capital
and largest city
Accra
5°33′N 0°12′W
Official languagesEnglish[1][2]
Recognised national languages
Ethnic groups
(2021 census[3])
Religion
(2021 census[3])
Demonym(s)Ghanaian
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic
 President
Nana Akufo-Addo
Mahamudu Bawumia
Alban Bagbin
Kwasi Anin-Yeboah
LegislatureParliament
Independence from the United Kingdom
 Dominion
6 March 1957
 Republic
1 July 1960
Area
 Total
238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi) (80th)
 Water (%)
4.61 (11,000 km2; 4,247 mi2)
Population
 2022 estimate
32,103,042[4] (47th)
 2021 census
30,792,608[5]
 Density
101.5/km2 (262.9/sq mi) (103rd)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
 Total
$226 billion[6]
 Per capita
$8,343[6]
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
 Total
$73.594  billion[6]
 Per capita
$2,374[6]
Gini (2016) 43.5[7]
medium
HDI (2019) 0.611[8]
medium · 138th
CurrencyCedi (GHS)
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+233
ISO 3166 codeGH
Internet TLD.gh

The first permanent state in present-day Ghana was the Bono state of the 11th century.[12] Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful were the Kingdom of Dagbon in the north[13] and the Ashanti Empire in the south.[14] Beginning in the 15th century, the Portuguese Empire, followed by numerous other European powers, contested the area for trading rights, until the British ultimately established control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of colonisation, Ghana's current borders took shape, encompassing four separate British colonial territories: Gold Coast, Ashanti, the Northern Territories and British Togoland. These were unified as an independent dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations on 6 March 1957, becoming the first colony in sub-Saharan Africa to achieve sovereignty.[15][16][17] Ghana subsequently became influential in decolonisation efforts and the Pan-African movement.[18]

Ghana is a multi-ethnic country with a diverse population, linguistic and religious groups;[19] while the Akan are the largest ethnic group, they constitute only a plurality. The majority of Ghanaians are Christian (71.3%), with close to a fifth being Muslim and a tenth practising traditional faiths or reporting no religion.[3] Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president who is both head of state and head of government.[20] Since 1993, it has maintained one of the freest and most stable governments on the continent, and performs relatively well in metrics of healthcare, economic growth, and human development.[18] Ghana consequently enjoys significant influence in West Africa,[21] and is highly integrated in international affairs, being a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the Group of 24 (G24) and the Commonwealth of Nations.[22]


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