Ghassanids

The Ghassanids (Arabic: الغساسنة, romanized: al-Ghasāsinah, also Banū Ghassān "Sons of Ghassān"), also called the Jafnids,[1] were an Arab tribe which founded a kingdom. They emigrated from Yemen in the early 3rd century to the Levant region.[2][3] Some merged with Hellenized Christian communities,[4] converting to Christianity in the first few centuries AD, while others may have already been Christians before emigrating north to escape religious persecution.[3][5]

Ghassanids
الغساسنة
220–638
Ghassanid Banner
Banner at the Battle of Siffin
Statusvassal of the Eastern Roman Empire
CapitalJabiyah
Bosra
Common languagesOld Arabic
Religion
Christianity
GovernmentMonarchy
King 
 220–265
Jafnah I (first)
 632–638
Jabalah VI (last)
History 
 Established
220
 Annexed by Rashidun Caliphate
638
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Salihids
Arabia Petraea
Rashidun Caliphate

After settling in the Levant, the Ghassanids became a client state to the Byzantine Empire and fought alongside them against the Persian Sassanids and their Arab vassals, the Lakhmids.[2][5] The lands of the Ghassanids also acted as a buffer zone protecting lands that had been annexed by the Romans against raids by Bedouin tribes.[citation needed]

Few Ghassanids became Muslim following the Muslim conquest of the Levant; most Ghassanids remained Christian and joined Melkite and Syriac communities within what is now Jordan, Palestine, Syria and Lebanon.[3]