Ghurid dynasty

The Ghurids or Ghorids (Persian: سلسله غوریان; self-designation: شنسبانی, Shansabānī) were a dynasty of Iranian origin from the Ghor region of present-day central Afghanistan, but the exact ethnic origin is uncertain.[10] The dynasty converted to Sunni Islam from Buddhism,[7][8] after the conquest of Ghor by the Ghaznavid sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in 1011. The dynasty overthrew the Ghaznavid Empire in 1186 when Sultan Mu'izz ad-Din Muhammad of Ghor conquered the last Ghaznavid capital of Lahore.[11]

Ghurid Sultanate
before 879–1215
Map of the Ghurid dynasty at its greatest extent under Ghiyath al-Din Muhammad.[2]
CapitalFirozkoh[3]
Herat[4]
Ghazna (1170s–1215)[5]
Common languagesPersian (court)[6]
Religion
before 1011:
Buddhism[7]
From 1011:
Sunni Islam[8]
GovernmentHereditary monarchy
Malik/Sultan 
 9th-century–10th-century
Amir Suri (first)
 1214–1215
Ala al-Din Ali (last)
History 
 Established
before 879
 Disestablished
1215
Area
1200 est.[9]2,000,000 km2 (770,000 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ghaznavids
Great Seljuq Empire
Gurjara-Pratihara
Delhi Sultanate
Khwarazmian dynasty

At their zenith, the Ghurid empire encompassed Khorasan in the west and reached northern India as far as Bengal in the east.[10] Their first capital was Firozkoh in Mandesh, Ghor, which was later replaced by Herat,[4] and finally Ghazna.[5] The Ghurids were patrons of Persian culture and heritage.[12]

Abu Ali ibn Muhammad (reigned 1011–1035) was the first Muslim king of the Ghurid dynasty to construct mosques and Islamic schools in Ghor.

The Ghurids were succeeded in Khorasan and Persia by the Khwarazmian dynasty, and in northern India by the Mamluk dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.