Glasgow

Glasgow (Scots: Glesga; Scottish Gaelic: Glaschu) is the most populous city in Scotland and the fourth-most populous city in the United Kingdom, as well as being the 27th largest city by population in Europe.[6] In 2020, it had an estimated population of 635,640. Historically part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, and is governed by Glasgow City Council. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. It is the fifth-most visited city in the United Kingdom.[7]

Glasgow
Glesga  (Scots)
Glaschu  (Scottish Gaelic)
From top, left to right: The River Clyde at Finnieston, George Square, Tolbooth Steeple, the Glasgow Royal Concert Hall, The Glasgow Tower, tallest structure in Scotland, the SSE Hydro and SEC Armadillo, Skyline of Glasgow City, Cineworld Glasgow, the tallest cinema in the world
Nicknames: 
"Glesca/Glesga", "The Dear Green Place", "Baile Mòr nan Gàidheal"[1]
Motto(s): 
Let Glasgow Flourish
Lord, let Glasgow flourish by the preaching of the word
Glasgow
Location within Scotland
Glasgow
Location within the United Kingdom
Glasgow
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 55.860916°N 4.251433°W / 55.860916; -4.251433
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Country Scotland
Council AreaGlasgow City
Lieutenancy AreaGlasgow
Subdivisions23 Wards
FoundedLate-6th century
Burgh Charter1170s[2]
Government
  Council LeaderSusan Aitken (SNP)
  Lord ProvostPhilip Braat (Lab)
  MSPs
Area
  City and council area175 km2 (68 sq mi)
  Urban
368.5 km2 (142.3 sq mi)
  Metro
492 km2 (190 sq mi)
Population
  City and council area612,040 (City)[3]
626,410 (Council area)[4]
  Rank3rd
  Density3,555/km2 (9,210/sq mi)
  Urban
985,290[3]
  Metro
1,861,315[5]
  Language(s)
English
Scots
Gaelic
Demonym(s)Glaswegian
Time zoneUTC±0 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST)UTC+1 (British Summer Time)
Postcode areas
Area code(s)0141
OS grid referenceNS590655
International AirportsGlasgow Airport (GLA)
Glasgow Prestwick Airport (PIK)
Main Railway StationsGlasgow Central
Glasgow Queen Street
Rapid transit Glasgow subway
WebsiteCity website

Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, and tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, and the later establishment of the University of Glasgow in the 15th century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the 18th century. From the 18th century onwards, the city also grew as one of Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies. With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded rapidly to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals, textiles and engineering; most notably in the shipbuilding and marine engineering industry, which produced many innovative and famous vessels. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and the Edwardian era.[8][9][10][11]

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew rapidly, reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938.[12] The population of Glasgow was greatly reduced following comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s which resulted in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns, such as Cumbernauld, Livingston, East Kilbride and peripheral suburbs, followed by successive boundary changes. Over 985,200 people live in the Greater Glasgow contiguous urban area, while the wider Glasgow City Region is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population.[3] The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2.

Glasgow has the largest economy in Scotland and the third highest GDP Per capita of any city in the UK.[13][14] Glasgow’s major cultural institutions - the Burrell Collection, Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, the Royal Scottish National Orchestra, Scottish Ballet and Scottish Opera – enjoy international reputations. The city was the European Capital of Culture in 1990 and is notable for its architecture, culture, media, music scene, sports clubs and transport connections. Natives or inhabitants of Glasgow are known as Glaswegians, and are well known for their distinctive dialect and accent. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018, and was one of the host cities for UEFA Euro 2020. The city is also well known in the sporting world for football, particularly the Old Firm rivalry between Celtic and Rangers.