Glucocorticoid receptor

The glucocorticoid receptor (GR, or GCR) also known as NR3C1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind.

NR3C1
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
AliasesNR3C1, GCCR, GCR, GCRST, GR, GRL, nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1, Glucocorticoid Receptor
External IDsOMIM: 138040 MGI: 95824 HomoloGene: 30960 GeneCards: NR3C1
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_008173
NM_001361209
NM_001361210
NM_001361211
NM_001361212

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001348138
NP_001348139
NP_001348140
NP_001348141
NP_032199

Location (UCSC)Chr 5: 143.28 – 143.44 MbChr 18: 39.54 – 39.65 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

The GR is expressed in almost every cell in the body and regulates genes controlling the development, metabolism, and immune response. Because the receptor gene is expressed in several forms, it has many different (pleiotropic) effects in different parts of the body.

When glucocorticoids bind to GR, its primary mechanism of action is the regulation of gene transcription.[5][6] The unbound receptor resides in the cytosol of the cell. After the receptor is bound to glucocorticoid, the receptor-glucocorticoid complex can take either of two paths. The activated GR complex up-regulates the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins in the nucleus or represses the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins in the cytosol (by preventing the translocation of other transcription factors from the cytosol into the nucleus).

In humans, the GR protein is encoded by NR3C1 gene which is located on chromosome 5 (5q31).[7][8]


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