Glucose

Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6. Glucose is the most abundant monosaccharide,[3] a subcategory of carbohydrates. Glucose is mainly made by plants and most algae during photosynthesis from water and carbon dioxide, using energy from sunlight, where it is used to make cellulose in cell walls, the most abundant carbohydrate in the world.[4]

d-Glucose

Haworth projection of α-d-glucopyranose

Fischer projection of d-glucose
Names
Pronunciation /ˈɡlkz/, /ɡlks/
IUPAC name
  • Systematic name:
    • (2R,3S,4R,5R)-2,3,4,5,6-Pentahydroxyhexanal
  • Allowed trivial names:
    • ᴅ-Glucose
    • ᴅ-gluco-Hexose
Preferred IUPAC name
PINs are not identified for natural products.
Other names
  • Blood sugar
  • Dextrose
  • Corn sugar
  • d-Glucose
  • Grape sugar
Identifiers
  • 50-99-7 Y
  • 492-62-6 (α-d-glucopyranose) Y
3D model (JSmol)
3DMet
Abbreviations Glc
1281604
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
EC Number
  • 200-075-1
83256
KEGG
MeSH Glucose
RTECS number
  • LZ6600000
UNII
  • InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3-,4+,5-,6?/m1/s1 Y
    Key: WQZGKKKJIJFFOK-GASJEMHNSA-N Y
Properties
C6H12O6
Molar mass 180.156 g/mol
Appearance White powder
Density 1.54 g/cm3
Melting point α-d-Glucose: 146 °C (295 °F; 419 K)
β-d-Glucose: 150 °C (302 °F; 423 K)
909 g/L (25 °C (77 °F))
−101.5×10−6 cm3/mol
8.6827
Thermochemistry
218.6 J/(K·mol)[1]
209.2 J/(K·mol)[1]
−1271 kJ/mol[2]
2,805 kJ/mol (670 kcal/mol)
Pharmacology
B05CX01 (WHO) V04CA02 (WHO), V06DC01 (WHO)
Hazards
Safety data sheet ICSC 08655
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
0
1
0
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Y verify (what is YN ?)
Infobox references

In energy metabolism, glucose is the most important source of energy in all organisms. Glucose for metabolism is stored as a polymer, in plants mainly as starch and amylopectin, and in animals as glycogen. Glucose circulates in the blood of animals as blood sugar. The naturally occurring form of glucose is d-glucose, while l-glucose is produced synthetically in comparatively small amounts and is of lesser importance. Glucose is a monosaccharide containing six carbon atoms and an aldehyde group, and is therefore an aldohexose. The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) as well as ring (cyclic) form. Glucose is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. In animals, glucose is released from the breakdown of glycogen in a process known as glycogenolysis.

Glucose, as intravenous sugar solution, is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.[5] It is also on the list in combination with sodium chloride.[5]

The name glucose is derived from Ancient Greek γλεῦκος (gleûkos, “wine, must”), from γλυκύς (glykýs, “sweet”).[6][7] The suffix "-ose" is a chemical classifier, denoting a sugar.