The domestic goat or simply goat (Capra hircus) is a domesticated species of goat-antelope typically kept as livestock. It was domesticated from the wild goat (C. aegagrus) of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the animal family Bovidae and the subfamily Caprinae, meaning it is closely related to the sheep. There are over 300 distinct breeds of goat.[1] It is one of the oldest domesticated species of animal, according to archaeological evidence that its earliest domestication occurred in Iran at 10,000 calibrated calendar years ago.[2]

Goat-herding is an ancient tradition that is still important in places like Egypt.

Domestic goat
Temporal range: 0.01–0 Ma
A pygmy goat on a tree stump
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Caprinae
Genus: Capra
C. hircus
Binomial name
Capra hircus

Capra aegagrus hircus Linnaeus, 1758
Capra depressa Linnaeus, 1758
Capra mambrica Linnaeus, 1758
Capra reversa Linnaeus, 1758

Goats have been used for milk, meat, fur, and skins across much of the world.[3] Milk from goats is often turned into goat cheese.

Female goats are referred to as does or nannies, intact males are called bucks or billies, and juvenile goats of both sexes are called kids. Castrated males are called wethers. While the words hircine and caprine both refer to anything having a goat-like quality, hircine is used most often to emphasize the distinct smell of domestic goats.

In 2011, there were more than 924 million goats living in the world, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization.[4]