The Governing Senate (Правительствующий сенат, Pravitelstvuyushchiy Senat) was a legislative, judicial, and executive body of the Russian Emperors, instituted by Peter the Great to replace the Boyar Duma and lasted until the very end of the Russian Empire. It was chaired by the Procurator General, who served as the link between the sovereign and the Senate; he acted, in the emperor's own words, as "the sovereign's eye".
Originally established only for the time of Peter's absence, it became a permanent body after his return. The number of senators was first set at nine and, in 1712, increased to ten. Any disagreements between the Chief Procurator and the Senate were to be settled by the monarch. Certain other officials and a chancellery were also attached to the Senate. While it underwent many subsequent changes, it became one of the most important institutions of imperial Russia, especially for administration and law.
In the 19th century, the Senate evolved into the highest judicial body in Russia. As such, it exercised control over all legal institutions and officials throughout the country.
The Senate was composed of several departments, two of which were Courts of Cassation (one for criminal cases, one for civil cases). It also included a Department of Heraldry, which managed matters relating to the rights of the nobles and honorary citizens.
Procurator Generals and Ministers of Justice
- 1802 - 1803 Gavrila Derzhavin
- 1803 - 1810 Pyotr Lopukhin
- 1810 - 1814 Ivan Dmitriev
- 1814 - 1817 Dmitriy Troshchinsky
- 1817 - 1827 Dmitry Lobanov-Rostovsky
- 1827 - 1829 Aleksei Dolgorukov
- 1829 - 1839 Dmitriy Dashkov
- 1839 Dmitry Bludov
- 1839 - 1862 Viktor Panin
- 1862 - 1867 Dmitriy Zamyatnin
- 1867 Sergei Urusov
- 1867 - 1978 Konstantin von Pahlen
- 1878 - 1885 Dmitry Nabokov
- 1885 - 1894 Nikolay Manasein
- 1894 - 1905 Nikolay Muravyov
- 1905 Sergey Manukhin
- 1905 - 1906 Mikhail Akimov
- 1906 - 1915 Ivan Shcheglovitov
- 1915 - 1916 Alexander Khvostov
- 1916 Alexander Makarov
- 1916 - 1917 Nikolay Dobrovolsky
Sources and references
- Steinberg, Mark D.; Riasanovsky, Nicholas Valentine (2005). A History of Russia. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-515394-4.