Grand Duchy of Baden

The Grand Duchy of Baden (German: Großherzogtum Baden) was a state in the southwest German Empire on the east bank of the Rhine. It existed between 1806 and 1918.[1]

Grand Duchy of Baden
Großherzogtum Baden
Anthem: "Badnerlied" (unofficial)
The Grand Duchy of Baden within the German Empire
Official languageGerman
Common languages
Alemannic, South Franconian, Palatinate
GovernmentConstitutional monarchy
Grand Duke 
Charles Frederick (first)
Friedrich II (last)
Sigismund Reitzenstein (first)
Heinrich Bodman (last)
Erste Kammer
Zweite Kammer
27 April 1803
 Grand Duchy
24 October 1806
18 January 1871
14 November 1918
15,082 km2 (5,823 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Electorate of Baden
Republic of Baden

It came into existence in the 12th century as the Margraviate of Baden and subsequently split into the states of Baden-Durlach and Baden-Baden, which were reunified in 1771. It then became the much-enlarged[1] Grand Duchy of Baden after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire from 1803 to 1806 and was a sovereign country until it joined the German Empire in 1871. In 1918, it became part of the Weimar Republic as the Republic of Baden. Baden was bordered to the north by the Kingdom of Bavaria and the Grand Duchy of Hessen-Darmstadt; to the west,[1] along most of its length, by the river Rhine, which separated Baden from the Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate and Alsace in modern France; to the south by Switzerland; and to the east by the Kingdom of Württemberg, the Principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Bavaria.

After World War II, the French military government in 1945 created the state of Baden (originally known as "South Baden") out of the southern half of the former Baden, with Freiburg as its capital. This portion of the former Baden was declared in its 1947 constitution to be the true successor of the old Baden. The northern half of the old Baden was combined with northern Württemberg, becoming part of the American military zone, and formed the state of Württemberg-Baden. Both Baden and Württemberg-Baden became states of West Germany upon its formation in 1949.

In 1952 Baden merged with Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern (southern Württemberg and the former Prussian exclave of Hohenzollern) to form Baden-Württemberg. This is the only merger of states that has taken place in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany.

The unofficial anthem of Baden is called "Badnerlied" (Song of the People of Baden) and consists of four or five traditional verses. However, over the years, many more verses have been added – there are collections with up to 591 verses of the anthem.

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