Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China (traditional Chinese: 萬里長城; simplified Chinese: 万里长城; pinyin: Wànlǐ Chángchéng) is a series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Steppe. Several walls were built from as early as the 7th century BC,[2] with selective stretches later joined together by Qin Shi Huang (220–206 BC), the first emperor of China. Little of the Qin wall remains.[3] Later on, many successive dynasties built and maintained multiple stretches of border walls. The most well-known sections of the wall were built by the Ming dynasty (1368–1644).

Great Wall of China
萬里長城 / 万里长城
Map of all the wall constructions
General information
TypeFortification
CountryChina
Coordinates40.68°N 117.23°E / 40.68; 117.23
Technical details
Size21,196 km (13,171 mi)[1]
Official nameThe Great Wall
TypeCultural
Criteriai, ii, iii, iv, vi
Designated1987 (11th session)
Reference no.438
State PartyChina
RegionAsia-Pacific
Great Wall of China
Traditional Chinese長城
Simplified Chinese长城
Literal meaning"The Long Wall"
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese萬里長城
Simplified Chinese万里长城
Literal meaning"The 10,000-li Long Wall"

Apart from defense, other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration.[4] Furthermore, the defensive characteristics of the Great Wall were enhanced by the construction of watchtowers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signaling capabilities through the means of smoke or fire, and the fact that the path of the Great Wall also served as a transportation corridor.

The frontier walls built by different dynasties have multiple courses. Collectively, they stretch from Liaodong in the east to Lop Lake in the west, from the present-day SinoRussian border in the north to Tao River (Taohe) in the south; along an arc that roughly delineates the edge of the Mongolian steppe; spanning over 20,000 km (12,000 mi) in total.[5] Today, the defensive system of the Great Wall is generally recognized as one of the most impressive architectural feats in history.[6]