Green anarchism

Green anarchism is an anarchist school of thought that puts a particular emphasis on environmental issues. A green anarchist theory is normally one that extends anarchism beyond a critique of human interactions and includes a critique of the interactions between humans and non-humans as well.[1] Beyond human liberation, green anarchist praxis can extend to some form of nonhuman, total liberation and an environmentally sustainable anarchist society.

Important early influences were Henry David Thoreau, Leo Tolstoy[2] and Élisée Reclus.[3] In the late 19th century, green anarchism emerged within individualist anarchist[4][5][6] circles in Cuba,[7] France,[8][9] Portugal[2][10] and Spain.[2][9][11][12][13]

Important contemporary currents include anarcho-naturism as the fusion of anarchism and naturist philosophies; anarcho-primitivism which offers a critique of technology and argues that anarchism is best suited to uncivilised ways of life; eco-anarchism which combines older trends of primitivism as well as bioregional democracy, eco-feminism, intentional community, pacifism and secession that distinguish it from the more general green anarchism; green syndicalism, a green anarchist political stance made up of anarcho-syndicalist views; social ecology which argues that the hierarchical domination of nature by human stems from the hierarchical domination of human by human.[14]