Greenland

Greenland (Greenlandic: Kalaallit Nunaat, pronounced [kalaːɬit nʉnaːt]; Danish: Grønland, pronounced [ˈkʁɶnˌlænˀ]) is an island country in North America that is part of the Kingdom of Denmark.[13] It is located between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Greenland is the world's largest island.[lower-alpha 4] It is one of three constituent countries that form the Kingdom of Denmark, along with Denmark and the Faroe Islands; the citizens of these countries are all citizens of Denmark and the European Union.[15] Greenland's capital is Nuuk.[15]

Greenland
Kalaallit Nunaat (Greenlandic)
Grønland (Danish)
Anthem:
"Nunarput, utoqqarsuanngoravit" (Greenlandic)
"You Our Ancient Land"
Kalaallit anthem:
"Nuna asiilasooq" (Greenlandic)
"The Land of Great Length"
[lower-alpha 1]
Location of Greenland
Sovereign state Denmark
Union with Norway1262
Danish-Norwegian recolonization1721
Cession to Denmark14 January 1814
Home rule1 May 1979
Further autonomy and self rule21 June 2009[2][3]
Capital
and largest city
Nuuk
64°10′N 51°44′W
Official languagesGreenlandic[lower-alpha 2]
Recognized languagesDanish, English, and other languages if necessary[lower-alpha 2]
Ethnic groups
(2020[5])
Indigenous status:[6]

Non-Indigenous:

Religion
Christianity (Church of Greenland)
Demonym(s)
  • Greenlander
  • Greenlandic
GovernmentDevolved government within a parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 Monarch
Margrethe II
Mikaela Engell
 Premier
Múte Bourup Egede
Hans Enoksen
LegislatureInatsisartut
National representation
2 members
Area
 Total
2,166,086 km2 (836,330 sq mi)
 Water (%)
83.1[lower-alpha 3]
Highest elevation
3,700 m (12,100 ft)
Population
 2022 estimate
56,466[7] (210th)
 Density
0.028/km2 (0.1/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2011 estimate
 Total
$1.8 billion[8]
 Per capita
$37,000
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
 Total
$3.0 billion[9]
 Per capita
$53,000[10]
Gini (2015) 33.9[11]
medium
HDI (2010) 0.786[12]
high · 61st
CurrencyDanish krone (DKK)
Time zoneUTC±00:00 to UTC-04:00
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+299
Postal codes
39xx
ISO 3166 codeGL
Internet TLD.gl

Though a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe (specifically Norway and Denmark, the colonial powers) for more than a millennium, beginning in 986.[16] Greenland has been inhabited at intervals over at least the last 4,500 years by Arctic peoples whose forebears migrated there from what is now Canada.[17][18] Norsemen settled the uninhabited southern part of Greenland beginning in the 10th century, having previously settled Iceland. Inuit arrived in the 13th century. Though under continuous influence of Norway and Norwegians, Greenland was not formally under the Norwegian crown until 1261. The Norse colonies disappeared in the late 15th century after Norway was hit by the Black Death and entered a severe decline.

In the early 17th century, Danish explorers reached Greenland again. Greenland became Danish in 1814 and was fully integrated in the Danish state in 1953 under the Constitution of Denmark. With the Constitution of 1953, the people in Greenland became citizens of Denmark. In 1979, Denmark granted home rule to Greenland; in 2008, Greenlanders voted in favour of the Self-Government Act, which transferred more power from the Danish government to the local Greenlandic government.[19] Under the new structure, Greenland has gradually assumed responsibility for a number of governmental services and areas of competence. The Danish government still retains control of citizenship, monetary policy and foreign affairs including defence. The majority of its residents are Inuit.[20] Today, the population is concentrated mainly on the southwest coast, while the rest of the island is sparsely populated. Three-quarters of Greenland is covered by the only permanent ice sheet outside of Antarctica. With a population of 56,081 (2020),[21] it is the least densely populated region in the world.[22] At 70%, Greenland has one of the highest shares of renewable energy in the world, mostly coming from hydropower.[23]


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