Guizhou

Guizhou /ɡwˈ/[5] (Chinese: 贵州; alternately Kweichow) is a landlocked province in the southwest region of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Guiyang, in the center of the province. Guizhou borders the autonomous region of Guangxi to the south, Yunnan to the west, Sichuan to the northwest, the municipality of Chongqing to the north, and Hunan to the east. The population of Guizhou stands at 38.5 million, ranking 18th among the provinces in China.

Guizhou Province
贵州省
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese贵州省 (Guìzhōu Shěng)
  AbbreviationGZ / or (pinyin: Qián or Guì)
Map showing the location of Guizhou Province
Coordinates: 26°50′N 106°50′E
CountryChina
Named forGui - Gui Mountains
zhou (prefecture)
Capital
(and largest city)
Guiyang
Divisions9 prefectures, 88 counties, 1539 townships
Government
  TypeProvince
  BodyGuizhou Provincial People's Congress
  CPC SecretaryShen Yiqin
  Congress chairwomanShen Yiqin
  GovernorLi Bingjun
  CPPCC chairmanLiu Xiaokai
Area
  Total176,167 km2 (68,018 sq mi)
Area rank16th
Highest elevation
(Jiucaiping)
2,900 m (9,500 ft)
Population
 (2020)[2]
  Total38,562,148
  Rank19th
  Density220/km2 (570/sq mi)
  Density rank18th
Demographics
  Ethnic compositionHan - 62%
Miao - 12%
Buyei - 8%
Dong - 5%
Tujia - 4%
Yi - 2%
Undistinguished - 2%
Gelao - 2%
Sui - 1%
  Languages and dialectsSouthwestern Mandarin
ISO 3166 codeCN-GZ
GDP (2020)CNY 1.78 trillion
$ 258 billion (19th)[3]
 - per capitaCNY 46,228
USD 6,700 (31st)
 • growth 4.5%
HDI (2018) 0.680[4]
medium · 29th
Websitehttp://www.gzgov.gov.cn
(Simplified Chinese)
Guizhou
"Guizhou" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese贵州
Traditional Chinese貴州
Hanyu PinyinGuìzhōu
PostalKweichow
Tibetan name
Tibetanཀུའེ་ཀྲོའུ་
Zhuang name
ZhuangGveicouh
贵州
Yi name
Yiꇭꍏ

The Dian Kingdom, which inhabited the present-day area of Guizhou, was annexed by the Han dynasty in 106 BC.[6] Guizhou was formally made a province in 1413 during the Ming dynasty. After the overthrow of the Qing in 1911 and following the Chinese Civil War, the Communist Party of China took refuge in Guizhou during the Long March between 1934 and 1935.[7] After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, Mao Zedong promoted the relocation of heavy industry into inland provinces such as Guizhou, to better protect them from potential foreign attacks.

Guizhou is rich in natural, cultural and environmental resources. Its natural industry includes timber and forestry, and the energy and mining industries constitute an important part of its economy. Notwithstanding, Guizhou is considered a relatively undeveloped province, with the fourth-lowest GDP per capita in China as of 2020. However, it is also one of China's fastest-growing economies.[8] The Chinese government is looking to develop Guizhou as a data hub.[9][10]

Guizhou is a mountainous province, with its higher altitudes in the west and centre. It lies at the eastern end of the Yungui Plateau. Demographically, it is one of China's most diverse provinces. Minority groups account for more than 37% of the population, including sizable populations of the Miao, Bouyei, Dong, Tujia and Yi peoples, all of whom speak languages distinct from Chinese. The main language spoken in Guizhou is Southwestern Mandarin, a variety of Mandarin.