Hadrian's Wall

Hadrian's Wall (Latin: Vallum Aelium), also known as the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, is a former defensive fortification of the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian.[1] Running "from Wallsend on the River Tyne in the east to Bowness-on-Solway in the west", the Wall covered the whole width of the island, as Jarrett A. Lobell says.[2] In addition to the wall's defensive military role, its gates may have been customs posts.[3]

The location of Hadrian's Wall in what is now northern England, and the later Antonine Wall in modern-day Scotland

A significant portion of the wall still stands and can be followed on foot along the adjoining Hadrian's Wall Path. The largest Roman archaeological feature in Britain, it runs a total of 73 miles (117.5 kilometres) in northern England.[4] Regarded as a British cultural icon, Hadrian's Wall is one of Britain's major ancient tourist attractions.[5] It was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987.[6] In comparison, the Antonine Wall, thought by some to be based on Hadrian's wall (the Gillam hypothesis),[7] was not declared a World Heritage site until 2008.[8][9]

Hadrian's Wall marked the boundary between Roman Britannia and unconquered Caledonia to the north.[lower-alpha 1] The wall lies entirely within England and has never formed the Anglo-Scottish border.[10][11][12]