Hafez

Khāwje Shams-od-Dīn Moḥammad Ḥāfeẓ-e Shīrāzī (Persian: خواجه شمس‌‌الدین محمّد حافظ شیرازی), known by his pen name Hafez (حافظ, Ḥāfeẓ, 'the memorizer; the (safe) keeper'; 1315-1390) and as "Hafiz",[1] was a Persian lyric poet,[2][3] whose collected works are regarded by many Iranians as a pinnacle of Persian literature. His works are often found in the homes of people in the Persian-speaking world, who learn his poems by heart and use them as everyday proverbs and sayings. His life and poems have become the subjects of much analysis, commentary and interpretation, influencing post-14th century Persian writing more than any other Persian author.[4][5]

Hafez
Spiritual poet, mystic
Born1315
Shiraz, Fars, Iran
Died1390 (aged 7475)
Shiraz, Fars, Timurid Empire (present-day Iran)
Major shrineTomb of Hafez, Shiraz, Iran
InfluencesIbn Arabi, Khwaju, Al-Hallaj, Sanai, Anvari, Nizami, Sa'di, Khaqani, Attar
InfluencedSubsequent Persian lyric poets, Goethe
Tradition or genre
Mystic poetry (Ghazal, Irfan)
Major worksThe Divān of Hafez

Hafez is best known for his Divan of Hafez, a collection of his surviving poems probably compiled after his death. His works can be described as "antinomian"[6] and with the medieval use of the term "theosophical"; the term "theosophy" in the 13th and 14th centuries was used to indicate mystical work by "authors only inspired by the holy books" (as distinguished from theology). Hafez primarily wrote in the literary genre of lyric poetry or ghazals, that is the ideal style for expressing the ecstasy of divine inspiration in the mystical form of love poems. He was a Sufi.[1]

Themes of his ghazals include the beloved, faith and exposing hypocrisy. In his ghazals he deals with love, wine and taverns, all presenting ecstasy and freedom from restraint, whether in actual worldly release or in the voice of the lover[7] speaking of divine love.[8][self-published source] His influence on Persian speakers appears in divination by his poems (Persian: فال حافظ, fāl-e hāfez, somewhat similar to the Roman tradition of sortes vergilianae) and in the frequent use of his poems in Persian traditional music, visual art and Persian calligraphy. His tomb is located in his birthplace of Shiraz. Adaptations, imitations and translations of his poems exist in all major languages.


Share this article:

This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Hafez, and is written by contributors. Text is available under a CC BY-SA 4.0 International License; additional terms may apply. Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.