Hainan (UK: //, US: /-/; 海南) is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea. Hainan Island, the largest and most populous island in China, makes up the vast majority (97%) of the province. "Hainan", the name of the island and the province, literally means "south of the sea", reflecting its position south of the Qiongzhou Strait, which separates it from Guangdong's Leizhou Peninsula and the rest of the Chinese mainland. In the Chinese language, Hainan is officially known as Hainan Dao.
This article contains content that is written like an advertisement. (August 2020)
|• Chinese||海南省 (Hǎinán Shěng)|
|• Abbreviation||HI / 琼 (pinyin: Qióng; Jyutping: king4; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: khêng)|
|• Yue Jyutping||Hoi2 Naam4 Saang2|
|Named for||海, hǎi: "sea"|
南, nán: "south"
"South of the Sea [Qiongzhou Strait]"
(and largest city)
|Divisions||4 prefectures, 25 counties, 218 townships|
|• Body||Hainan Provincial People's Congress|
|• CCP Secretary||Shen Xiaoming|
|• Congress chairman||Shen Xiaoming|
|• Governor||Feng Fei|
|• CPPCC chairman||Mao Wanchun|
|• Total||35,191 km2 (13,587 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||1,840 m (6,040 ft)|
|• Density||290/km2 (740/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||17th|
|• Ethnic composition||Han: 82.6%|
|• Languages and dialects||Mandarin Chinese, Hainanese, Yue, Lingao, Hakka, Hlai, Miao, Tsat|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-HI|
|GDP (2020)||CNY 553 billion |
USD 80 billion (31st)
|- per capita||CNY 54,878 |
USD 7,953 (25th)
|HDI (2018)||0.750 (high) (19th)|
|Area||33,210 km2 (12,820 sq mi)|
|Length||156 km (96.9 mi)|
|Width||170 km (106 mi)|
|Highest elevation||1,840 m (6040 ft)|
|Highest point||Wuzhi Mountain|
People's Republic of China
|Largest settlement||Haikou (pop. 2,873,358)|
|Ethnic groups||Han, Li, Miao, Zhuang, Utsul|
|Literal meaning||"South of the Sea (Qiongzhou Strait)"|
|Literal meaning||Island South of the Sea|
|Literal meaning||Pearl Cliffs|
|Literal meaning||Jade Cliffs|
|Literal meaning||Jade Prefecture|
The province has land of 33,920 square kilometers (13,100 sq mi), of which Hainan the island is 32,900 square kilometers (12,700 sq mi) and the rest is over 200 islands scattered across three archipelagos: Zhongsha, Xisha and Nansha. It was part of Guangdong from 1950–88, after which it resumed as a top-tier entity and almost immediately made the largest Special Economic Zone by Deng Xiaoping as part of the then-ongoing Chinese economic reform program.
The Li (or Hlai) people, a Kra–Dai-speaking ethnic group, are longest-native to the island and comprise 15% of the population. Their native languages include the Hlai languages. They are recognized by the Chinese government as one of the country's 56 ethnic groups. The Han population, who compose a majority of the population at 82%, speak a wide variety of languages including Mandarin, Min Hainanese, Yue Chinese, Lingaoese or Hakka Chinese.
There are ten major cities and ten counties in Hainan Province. The capital of the province is Haikou, on the northern coast of Hainan Island, while Sanya is a well-known tourist destination on the southern coast. The other major cities are Wenchang, Sansha, Qionghai, Wanning, Wuzhishan, Dongfang and Danzhou.
According to China's territorial claims, several territories in the South China Sea, including the Spratly Islands (Nansha) and Paracel Islands (Xisha), are notionally administered under Sansha city of the province.
On 1 June 2020, a large-scale plan was announced by the Chinese government to transform the entire island province into a free trade port (FTP), with the aim of turning it into the largest special economic zone in China. The island is also China's first blockchain testing zone that was officially started in 2019.