Hamina


Hamina (Finnish pronunciation: [ˈhɑminɑ]; Swedish: Fredrikshamn, Finland Swedish: [freːdriksˈhɑmn] (listen), Sweden Swedish: [freːdrɪksˈhamːn]) is a town and a municipality of Finland. It is located approximately 145 km (90 mi) east of the country's capital Helsinki, in the Kymenlaakso region, and formerly the province of Southern Finland. The municipality's population is 19,844 (as of 31 March 2021)[6] and covers an area of 1,155.14 square kilometres (446.00 sq mi), of which 545.66 km2 (210.68 sq mi) is water.[1] The population density is 32.56 inhabitants per square kilometre (84.3/sq mi). The population of the central town is approximately 10,000. The municipal language of Hamina is Finnish.

Hamina

Fredrikshamn
Town
Haminan kaupunki
Fredrikshamns stad
Clockwise from top-left: St. Mary's Church, the Reserve Officer School, the countryside of Husula neighbourhood, a view from the Sailor Pavilion towards Tervasaari and the historical Town Hall.
Flag
Coat of arms
Location of Hamina in Finland
Coordinates: 60°34′N 027°12′E
Country Finland
RegionKymenlaakso
Sub-regionKotka-Hamina
Charter1653
Government
  Town managerHannu Muhonen
Area
 (2018-01-01)[1]
  Total1,155.14 km2 (446.00 sq mi)
  Land609.51 km2 (235.33 sq mi)
  Water545.66 km2 (210.68 sq mi)
Area rank138th largest in Finland
Population
 (2021-03-31)[2]
  Total19,844
  Rank58th largest in Finland
  Density32.56/km2 (84.3/sq mi)
Population by native language
  Finnish96.1% (official)
  Swedish0.4%
  Others3.5%
Population by age
  0 to 1412.8%
  15 to 6457.2%
  65 or older30%
Time zoneUTC+02:00 (EET)
  Summer (DST)UTC+03:00 (EEST)
Municipal tax rate[5]21.00%
ClimateDfb
Websitewww.hamina.fi

Highway 7 (E18) is the town's road connection to Helsinki, after it was upgraded to a continuous motorway in September 2014. Hamina is also one of the most important harbors of Finland, the Port of Hamina-Kotka. The port specializes in forest products and the transit of cargo to Russia. One of Google's five European data centers is situated in Hamina.[7]

History


Vehkalahti was as a municipality first mentioned in 1336. At the proposal of Count Peter Brahe, the area surrounding the Vehkalahti church (today St. Mary's Church) received its charter in 1653 through the establishment of Vehkalahden Uusikaupunki (Veckelax Nystad in Swedish, "The New Town of Vehkalahti"). The town was later destroyed during the Great Northern War in 1712.[8]

Plan of the Fredrikshamn fortress town (1723) by Axel Löwen

As the commercially vibrant city of Vyborg was lost to Russia in 1721, Fredrikshamn (named in 1723 in the honor of King Frederick I of Sweden) was dedicated to replace it.[9] The town, hitherto a small domestic port with restricted trading privilege's, was granted extensive rights to conduct foreign trade. The Finnish speaking population soon abbreviated the name og the town to Hamina. The reconstruction of the town was completed between 1722 and 1724. The star-shaped fortress and the circular town plan, designed by Axel Löwen, were based on Central European and Italian Renaissance concepts from the 16th century.[8] Fortress towns with a circular street plan like this are quite rare; one example is Palmanova in Italy.[10]

In 1743, Hamina was surrendered to Russia, after the Russo–Swedish War, 1741–1743, and the town of Loviisa was the next Swedish candidate for an Eastern-Finnish trade center. Hamina became a Russian frontier town, for which a fortress was desirable.

The Treaty of Fredrikshamn (1809), by which Sweden ceded Finland, including parts of the province of Lappland and the Åland Islands, was signed in Hamina. Thus Sweden was split, and the eastern half was formed into the Grand Duchy of Finland, an autonomous part of the Russian Empire. In 1812, the previously conquered territories known as Old Finland (including Hamina) were joined to the Grand Duchy.

Hamina Cadet School was founded in 1819 and was in operation until 1903. In 1920 the Reserve Officer School began in the same facilities.

Because the town was founded next to the Vehkalahti Church, the municipal center had always been inside the town borders. Vehkalahti and Hamina were consolidated in 2003, and the old coat of arms was replaced with Vehkalahti's coat of arms. The old coat of arms was readopted in January 2013.[11]

Results of the 2021 Finnish municipal elections, resulted in the True Finns being the largest group on Hamina council, in Hamina.[12]

Main sights


Churches

  • St. Mary's Church, previously known as Vehkalahti Church, is the oldest building in Kymenlaakso. It was originally built in the Middle Ages, but it was burnt in 1821 and the current neoclassical exterior is designed by Carl Ludvig Engel and completed in 1828. The church has a museum dedicated to the church life from the 18th century onwards.[14][15]
  • St. John's Church, formerly known as Hamina Church, was built between 1841-1843. It was designed by Carl Ludvig Engel in the neoclassical style.[16]
  • Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, the Orthodox church in Hamina, was built in 1837. It was designed by Italian-French architect Louis Visconti. The architecture of the church is combination of neoclassical and Byzantine elements.[17]

Gallery


Twin towns


Notable people


See also


References


  1. "Area of Finnish Municipalities 1.1.2018" (PDF). National Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  2. "Preliminary population structure by area, 2021M01*-2021M03*". StatFin (in Finnish). Statistics Finland. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  3. "Population according to language and the number of foreigners and land area km2 by area as of 31 December 2008". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
  4. "Population according to age (1-year) and sex by area and the regional division of each statistical reference year, 2003-2020". StatFin. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  5. "List of municipal and parish tax rates in 2021" (PDF). Tax Administration of Finland. 1 December 2020. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  6. "Population by municipality as of 31 December 2008". Population Information System (in Finnish and Swedish). Population Register Center of Finland. Archived from the original on 2010-12-02. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  7. Hamina Data Center - Google Data centers
  8. Hamina
  9. Lindberg, Johan (May 26, 2016). "Finlands historia: 1700-talet". Uppslagsverket Finland (in Swedish). Retrieved November 30, 2017.
  10. Kopomaa, Timo (2005). "Kriisioloihin varautunut kaupunki" (PDF). Yhdyskuntasuunnittelu (in Finnish). Helsinki: Yhdyskuntasuunnittelun seura ry (The Finnish Society of Housing and Planning). 43 (2): 6–26. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
  11. Haminan vaakuna vaihtuu - Haminan kaupunki (in Finnish) Archived 2013-02-13 at archive.today
  12. https://yle.fi/uutiset/osasto/news/finns_party_gains_ncp_top_as_turnout_dips_in_finnish_local_elections/11979073
  13. Hamina
  14. Hurmaava Hamina - The 15th century church of St Mary and church Museum Archived 2013-02-17 at archive.today
  15. Churches in Finland
  16. Hurmaava Hamina - Church Of St John Archived 2013-02-17 at archive.today
  17. Hurmaava Hamina - The Orthodox Church Of St Peter and St Paul Archived 2013-02-17 at archive.today
  18. Vordingborg Kommune har 17 venskabsbyer Archived 2014-07-05 at the Wayback Machine
  19. Hurmaava Hamina - Info Archived 2011-11-29 at the Wayback Machine