Harare

Harare (/həˈrɑːr/;[5] formerly Salisbury /ˈsɔːlzbəri/ until 1982)[6] is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe. The city proper has an area of 960.6 km2 (371 mi2) and a population 2,123,132 in the 2012 census[1] and an estimated 3,120,917 in its metropolitan area in 2019.[2] Situated in north-eastern Zimbabwe in the country's Mashonaland region, Harare is a metropolitan province, which also incorporates the municipalities of Chitungwiza and Epworth.[7] The city sits on a plateau at an elevation of 1,483 metres (4,865 feet) above sea level and its climate falls into the subtropical highland category.

Harare
Clockwise, from top: Harare skyline; Parliament of Zimbabwe (front) and the Anglican Cathedral (behind); Heroes Acre monument; New Reserve Bank Tower; downtown Harare; Jacaranda trees lining Josiah Chinamano Avenue
Nicknames: 
Sunshine City, H Town
Motto(s): 
  • Nongera GroopVanhu  (Shona)
  • "Forward with Service to the People"
Location of Harare Province in Zimbabwe
Coordinates: 17°49′45″S 31°3′8″E
CountryZimbabwe
ProvinceHarare
Founded1890
Incorporated (city)1935
Renamed Harare18 April 1982
Government
  TypeMayor- council government
  MayorJacob Mafume (MDC)
Area
  Capital city and Province960.6 km2 (370.9 sq mi)
Elevation
1,490 m (4,890 ft)
Population
 (2012 Census)
  Capital city and Province2,123,132[1]
  Estimate 
(2019)
3,120,917[2]
  Urban
2,013,048[3]
Demonym(s)Hararean
Time zoneUTC+2 (CAT)
Area code(s)242
HDI (2018)0.645[4]
Medium
Dialling code 242 (or 0242 from within Zimbabwe)

The city was founded in 1890 by the Pioneer Column, a small military force of the British South Africa Company, and named Fort Salisbury after the UK Prime Minister Lord Salisbury. Company administrators demarcated the city and ran it until Southern Rhodesia achieved responsible government in 1923. Salisbury was thereafter the seat of the Southern Rhodesian (later Rhodesian) government and, between 1953 and 1963, the capital of the Central African Federation. It retained the name Salisbury until 1982, when it was renamed Harare on the second anniversary of Zimbabwean independence from the United Kingdom.

Long the commercial capital of Zimbabwe, Harare has seen economic ups and downs since the 2000s. It remains an important centre of commerce, government, finance, real estate, manufacturing, healthcare, design, education, art, culture, tourism, agriculture, mining and regional affairs.[8] Harare has the second-highest number of embassies in Southern Africa and serves as the location of the African headquarters of the World Health Organization, which it shares with Brazzaville.[9]

Harare has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1995 All-Africa Games and the 2003 Cricket World Cup. In 2018, Harare was ranked as a Gamma world city. The city's marquee festival is the Harare International Festival of the Arts, modelled on the Edinburgh Festival and one of the largest arts festivals in the southern hemisphere.[10] It is also home to Dynamos F.C., the club with the most titles in Zimbabwean football.