Hawaiian Kingdom

The Hawaiian Kingdom, or Kingdom of Hawaiʻi, was a sovereign state located in the Hawaiian Islands. The country was formed in 1795, when the warrior chief Kamehameha the Great, of the independent island of Hawaiʻi, conquered the independent islands of Oʻahu, Maui, Molokaʻi and Lānaʻi and unified them under one government. In 1810, the whole Hawaiian archipelago became unified when Kauaʻi and Niʻihau joined the Hawaiian Kingdom voluntarily. Two major dynastic families ruled the kingdom: the House of Kamehameha and the House of Kalākaua.

Kingdom of Hawaiʻi
Aupuni Mōʻī o Hawaiʻi
Common languagesHawaiian, English
Church of Hawaii
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy (until 1840)
Constitutional monarchy (from 1840)
Kamehameha I
Kamehameha II
Kamehameha III
Kamehameha IV
Kamehameha V
Kuhina Nui 
 1819–1832 (first)
 1863–1864 (last)
House of Nobles
House of Representatives
May, 1795
March/April 1810[10]
October 8, 1840
February 25 – July 31, 1843
November 28, 1843
August 22, 1849 - September 5, 1849
January 17, 1893
 Forced abdication of Queen Liliʻuokalani
January 24, 1895
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Ancient Hawaii
Paulet affair
French invasion of Honolulu
Paulet affair
Provisional Government of Hawaii
French invasion of Honolulu
Today part of

The kingdom won recognition from the major European powers. The United States became its chief trading partner and watched over it to prevent some other power (such as Britain or Japan) from threatening to seize control. Hawaiʻi was forced to adopt a new constitution in 1887 when King Kalākaua was threatened with violence by the Honolulu Rifles, an anti-monarchist militia, to sign it. Queen Liliʻuokalani, who succeeded Kalākaua in 1891, tried to abrogate the 1887 constitution and promulgate a new constitution but was overthrown in 1893, largely at the hands of the Committee of Safety, a group of residents consisting of Hawaiian subjects and foreign nationals of American, British and German descent, many of whom had been educated in the US, had lived there for a time.[11] Hawaiʻi was an independent republic until the U.S. annexed it through the Newlands Resolution, which was passed on July 4, 1898, to create the Territory of Hawaii. United States Public Law 103-150 adopted in 1993 (informally known as the Apology Resolution), acknowledged that "the overthrow of the Kingdom of Hawaii occurred with the active participation of agents and citizens of the United States" and also "that the Native Hawaiian people never directly relinquished to the United States their claims to their inherent sovereignty as a people over their national lands, either through the Kingdom of Hawaii or through a plebiscite or referendum."[12]

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