Hebron

Hebron (Arabic: الخليل أو الخليل الرحمن al-Khalīl or al-Khalil al-Rahman[4][5]; Hebrew: חֶבְרוֹן Ḥevron) is a Palestinian[6][7][8][9] city in the southern West Bank, 30 kilometres (19 mi) south of Jerusalem. Nestled in the Judaean Mountains, it lies 930 metres (3,050 ft) above sea level. The largest city in the West Bank, and the second largest in the Palestinian territories after Gaza, it has a population of over 215,000 Palestinians (2016),[10] and seven hundred Jewish settlers concentrated on the outskirts of the Old City of Hebron.[11] It includes the Cave of the Patriarchs, which Judeo-Christian and Islamic traditions all designate as the burial site of three key patriarchal/matriarchal couples.[11] Judaism ranks Hebron the second-holiest city after Jerusalem,[12] while some Muslims regard it as one of the four holy cities.[13][14][15][16]

Hebron
Arabic transcription(s)
  Arabicالخليل
  LatinḤebron (ISO 259-3)
Al-Khalīl (official)
Al-Ḫalīl (unofficial)
Hebrew transcription(s)
  Hebrewחברון
Downtown Hebron
Nickname(s): 
City of the Patriarchs
Hebron
Location of Hebron within Palestine
Coordinates: 31°32′00″N 35°05′42″E
Palestine grid159/103
StateState of Palestine
GovernorateHebron
Government
  TypeCity (from 1997)
  Head of MunicipalityTayseer Abu Sneineh[1]
Area
  Total74,102 dunams (74.102 km2 or 28.611 sq mi)
Population
 (2016)[3]
  Total215,452
  Density2,900/km2 (7,500/sq mi)
Websitewww.hebron-city.ps
Official nameHebron/Al-Khalil Old Town
CriteriaCultural: ii, iv, vi
Reference1565
Inscription2017 (41st Session)
Endangered2017–
Area20.6 ha
Buffer zone152.2 ha

The city is often described as a "microcosm" of the Israeli occupation of the West Bank.[17] The Hebron Protocol of 1997 divided the city into two sectors: H1, controlled by the Palestinian Authority, and H2, roughly 20% of the city, including 35,000 Palestinians, under Israeli military administration.[18] All security arrangements and travel permits for local residents are coordinated between the Palestinian Authority and Israel via the military administration of the West Bank, officially named Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT). The Jewish settlers have their own governing municipal body, the Committee of the Jewish Community of Hebron.

Hebron is a busy hub of West Bank trade, generating roughly a third of the area's gross domestic product, largely due to the sale of limestone from quarries in its area.[19] It has a local reputation for its grapes, figs, limestone, pottery workshops and glassblowing factories, and has the major dairy-product manufacturer al-Juneidi. The old city of Hebron features narrow, winding streets, flat-roofed stone houses, and old bazaars. The city is home to Hebron University and the Palestine Polytechnic University.[20][21]

The Hebron Governorate is the largest Palestinian governorate, with an estimated population of around 782,227 as of 2021.[22]