Heilongjiang

Heilongjiang,[5] formerly romanized as Heilungkiang, is a province in northeast China. It is the northernmost and easternmost province of the country. The province is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia (Amur Oblast, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Khabarovsk Krai, Primorsky Krai and Zabaykalsky Krai) to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area and the 15th-most populous.

Heilongjiang Province
黑龙江省
Name transcription(s)
  Chinese黑龙江省 (Hēilóngjiāng Shěng)
  AbbreviationHL / (pinyin: Hēi)
Hailin City
Map showing the location of Heilongjiang Province
Coordinates: 48°N 129°E
CountryChina
Named for hēi—black
lóng—dragon
jiāng—river
Amur River
Capital
(and largest city)
Qiqihar (1949–1953)
Harbin (1954–present)
Divisions13 prefectures, 130 counties, 1274 townships
Government
  TypeProvince
  BodyHeilongjiang Provincial People's Congress
  CCP SecretaryZhang Qingwei
  Congress chairmanZhang Qingwei
  GovernorHu Changsheng
  CPPCC chairmanHuang Jiansheng
Area
  Total454,800 km2 (175,600 sq mi)
Area rank6th
Highest elevation1,690 m (5,540 ft)
Population
 (2020)[2]
  Total31,850,088
  Rank15th
  Density70/km2 (180/sq mi)
  Density rank28th
Demographics
  Ethnic compositionHan: 95%
Manchu: 3%
Korean: 1%
Mongol: 0.4%
Hui: 0.3%
  Languages and dialectsNortheastern Mandarin, Jilu Mandarin, Jiaoliao Mandarin, Mongolian, Manchu, Russian
ISO 3166 codeCN-HL
GDP (2020)CNY 1.370 trillion
USD 198 billion (25th)[3]
 - per capitaCNY 43,009
USD 6,233 (32nd)
 • growth 1.0%
HDI (2018)0.747[4] (high) (12th)
Websitewww.hlj.gov.cn
Heilongjiang
"Heilongjiang" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese黑龙江
Traditional Chinese黑龍江
PostalHeilungkiang
Literal meaning"Black Dragon River"
Mongolian name
Mongolian scriptᠬᠠᠷᠠᠮᠦ᠌ᠷᠡᠨ
Manchu name
Manchu scriptᠰᠠᡥᠠᠯᡳᠶᠠᠨ
ᠮᡠᠯᠠ
ᠮᡤᠣᠯᠣ
RomanizationSahaliyan'ula golo

The province takes its name from the Heilong River (Chinese name of the Amur), which marks the border between the People's Republic of China and Russia. Heilongjiang contains China's northernmost point (in Mohe City along the Amur) and easternmost point (at the junction of the Amur and Ussuri rivers).

Heilongjiang has significant agricultural production,[6] and raw materials, such as timber, oil and coal.