Heraldic authority

A heraldic authority is defined as an office or institution which has been established by a reigning monarch or a government to deal with heraldry in the country concerned. It does not include private societies or enterprises which design and/or register coats of arms. Over the centuries, many countries have established heraldic authorities, and several still flourish today.

Europe

The Council of Heraldry and Vexillology grants non-noble personal and municipal arms in the French Community of Belgium.

Belgium

Burgundy

Croatia

The commission deals only with municipal heraldry and vexillology. It is composed of five members appointed on a four years mandate by the Minister: jurist, heraldist, archivist, historian and visual artist.[2] Pursuant to article 10. Law on the local self-government units, all municipal coats of arms have to be made and blazoned in accordance with heraldic rules.[3] Ministry will issue armorial (Croatian: grbovnica) to municipality in the form of a booklet composed of 8 pages. The Armorial is made in three copies of which one is obtained by : unit of local self-government, Croatian State Archives and the Ministry of Public Administration.

Czech Republic

The subcommittee deals only with municipal heraldry and vexillology. The grants of arms approved by the committee are signed by the Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies. The Czech Republic has no heraldic authority for personal arms.

Denmark

Finland

  • Heraldinen lautakunta (Heraldic Board), founded in 1957, known 1957–88 as Heraldinen toimikunta (Heraldic Committee).[5] It operates as a part of the National Archives of Finland.[6]

France

Georgia

The State Council of Heraldry advises the government of Georgia on all matters related to heraldry.

Germany

Holy Roman Empire

  • Reichsherold (Imperial Herald) (1520–?)

Bavaria

  • Reichsherold (Royal Herald) (1808–1920)

Prussia

  • Oberheroldsamt (1706–1713) – dealt with noble and municipal arms.
  • Königlich Preussisches Heroldsamt (Royal Prussian Heraldry Office) (1855–1920)

Saxony

  • Kommissariatt für Adelsangelegenheiten (Commission for Noble Affairs) (1902–1920)

Hungary

  • Országos Községi Törzskönyvbizottság (National Municipal Register Committee) (1898–1949)[8]
  • Képző és Iparművészeti Lektorátus (Lectorate of Visual and Applied Arts) (1970s–1990)[8]
  • Nemzeti Címer Bizottság (National Coat of Arms Committee) (2016– )[9]

Ireland

Italy

  • Consulta Araldica (Heraldry Council) (1869–1947)
  • Istituto Nazionale del Nastro Azzurro (King Vittorio Emanuele III allowed the Istituto Nazionale to grant heraldic coats of arms to members since 1927; the Istituto was recognized by the Italian Republic in 1966)[10]
  • Ufficio Cerimoniale della Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri (since 1947)[11]
Coat of arms, granted by the Istituto Nazionale del Nastro Azzurro to one of its members, the italian Admiral Ernesto Burzagli. The Nastro Azzurro is one of the main heraldic authoriries in Italy.

Latvia

  • State Heraldry Commission (1997– ), forming part of the Presidency – deals with official and municipal arms.[12]

Lithuania

  • Heraldry Commission (1988– ),[13] forming part of the Presidency – deals with official and municipal arms.

Luxembourg

  • Commission héraldique de l'Etat (State Heraldic Commission)

Malta

  • Chief Herald of Arms of Malta (2019–present)

As announced by The Malta Government Gazette, the Office of the Chief Herald of Arms of Malta was established on 21 March 2019. The Office was established by Heritage Malta Services Ltd, a subsidiary of Heritage Malta, which is a government agency. Its role is to regulate all corporate and personal heraldry within the Republic of Malta. Charles Gauci was named as the Chief Herald.[14]

However, uncertainty exists surrounding the legal basis of the establishment of the Office and its powers. In July 2021, the Ombudsman of Malta, Anthony C. Mifsud, made the following conclusion in the Report on Case No U 0059: "[...] it appears that the establishment of the Office of the Chief Herald may have been somewhat defective. The provisions found in the Cultural Heritage Act, do not appear to have been correctly followed. Moreover, the powers granted to the said office especially as far as granting of new arms is concerned, go beyond what is permitted by the said Act in its current guise."[15]

Netherlands

  • Hoge Raad van Adel (High Council of the Nobility) (1815– ) – grants personal arms (to nobles only) and official, military, and municipal arms. Also provides advice regarding arms of members of the royal family.

Norway

Poland

  • Komisja Heraldyczna (Heraldic Commission)

Portugal

  • Cartório da Nobreza (Nobility Register) (1521–1910) – heraldic authority for the Kingdom of Portugal;
  • Comissão de Heráldica da Associação dos Arqueólogos Portugueses (Heraldic Commission of the Association of Portuguese Archeologists) (1930 – ) – heraldic authority for the municipalities of Portugal;
  • Gabinete de Heráldica Corporativa (Office for Corporate Heraldry) (1930–1974) – heraldic authority for the corporations (trade unions, guilds, etc.);
  • Secção de Heráldica da Direção de Cultura e História Militar (Heraldry Section of the Directorate of Military History and Culture) (1969 – ) – heraldic authority for the Portuguese Army;
  • Gabinete de Heráldica Naval (Office for Naval Heraldry) (1972 – ) – heraldic authority for the Portuguese Navy;
  • Adjunto de Heráldica do Arquivo Histórico da Força Aérea (Heraldry Deputy of the Air Force Historical Archive) (1977 – ) – heraldic authority for the Portuguese Air Force;
  • Gabinete de Heráldica Autárquica (Office for Municipal Heraldry) (foreseen in 1991, but never created) – heraldic authority for the municipalities of Portugal.[16]

Russia

Slovakia

  • Heraldic Commission
  • Heraldic Registry of the Slovak Republic (part of Ministry of Interior)[17]

Spain

Sweden

  • Riksheraldiker (National Herald) (1734–1953)
  • Statens Heraldiska Nämnd (State Heraldry Office) (1953– ), headed by a State Herald, and forming part of the Royal Archives. registered with the Swedish Patent and Registration Office (Patent- och registreringsverket or PRV). Only official arms (royal and civic arms) are handled. Burgher and commoner arms are less strictly controlled and may be recognized by publication in the annual Scandinavian Roll of Arms.
    The Lord Lyon King of Arms is an official with responsibility for regulating heraldry in Scotland, issuing new grants of arms and serving as the judge of the Court of the Lord Lyon, the oldest heraldic court in the world that is still in daily operation.

United Kingdom

England and Wales

Northern Ireland

  • Until 1943, Northern Ireland came under the Ulster Office; since then, it has fallen under the College of Arms part of the jurisdiction of the Norroy and Ulster King of Arms which also covers the counties of England and Wales North of the River Trent.

Scotland

  • Court of the Lord Lyon, headed by the Lord Lyon (c. 1399?- ) – grants personal, municipal, and corporate arms; it is illegal to bear arms in Scotland unless they have been granted or recorded by the Lord Lyon.

Africa

Kenya

  • Kenya College of Arms (1968– ), headed by a Registrar, and forming part of the Attorney-General's Office – grants and registers personal, municipal, and corporate coats of arms. It was established by the College of Arms Act of 1968.

South Africa

  • Department of the Interior (1935–1959) – inter alia registered the arms of associations and institutions, as "badges".
  • Provincial administrations (1949–1963 – inter alia registered the arms of municipalities in their respective provinces.
  • Department of Education, Arts & Sciences (1959–1963 – inter alia registered the arms of associations and institutions, as "badges".
  • Bureau of Heraldry (1963– ), headed by the National Herald (formerly State Herald), and forming part of the National Archives & Records Service – registers personal, official, military, municipal, and corporate arms. Together with the Heraldry Council, it forms part of the National Archives and Records Service (formerly called the State Archives Service), which is currently under the authority of the Minister of Arts & Culture.

The Heraldry Act 1962, which governs the Bureau of Heraldry, has not been changed to replace "State herald" with "National Herald".[18] Announcements in the Government Gazette of South Africa still use "State Herald".

Zambia

  • Colours Control Board (1958– ) – inter alia registers the arms of associations and institutions, as "badges".

Zimbabwe

  • Registrar of Names, Uniforms, Badges and Heraldic Representations (1971– ), forming part of the Patents Office – registers official, municipal, corporate, and personal arms.

Bunyoro-Kitara, Uganda

  • Heraldry Society of Africa (2016– ), forming a repository of historic and current heraldry within the sub-monarchy of Bunyoro-Kitara, and all of the continent of Africa, and as warranted abroad.

Asia

Azerbaijan

  • Heraldic Council (2006– ), forming part of the Presidency.

Georgia

Philippines

North America

Canada

United States

  • Carolina Herald was an English herald responsible for heraldry in Carolina in early and mid 18th Century colonial times.
  • The Institute of Heraldry, U.S. Army, is the organization responsible for furnishing heraldic services to the President of the United States and all federal government agencies.

Oceania

New Zealand

References

  1. "Héraldique en Belgique | Association Royale Office Généalogique et Héraldique de Belgique". oghb.be. Retrieved 13 December 2019.
  2. "Pravilnik o postupku davanja odobrenja grba i zastave jedinici lokalne samouprave" [Regulation on the procedure for granting the coat of arms and flags to the local self-government unit]. Act of June 29, 1998 (in Croatian).
  3. Čl. 10. Grb mora biti heraldički ispravan i opisan po pravilima heraldike. Grb se sastoji isključivo od štita i sadržaja unutar njega. Jedinica lokalne i jedinica područne (regionalne) samouprave u pravilu preuzima svoj povijesni grb i zastavu. "Zakon o lokalnoj i područnoj (regionalnoj) samupravi (pročišćeni tekst)" [Law on Local and Regional Self-Government (consolidated text)]. Act of February 18, 2013 (in Croatian).
  4. "Rigsvåbenet, kongekronen og offentlig heraldik".
  5. Peltonen, Isto (April 2013). "Suomen kunnallisvaakunat – Perinteet ja käyttötaide" (PDF) (in Finnish). Jyväskylän yliopisto: 16. Retrieved 11 September 2018. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  6. "Heraldinen lautakunta" (in Finnish). Kansallisarkisto. Retrieved 11 September 2018.
  7. "Commission nationale d'héraldique (FranceArchives)" (in French). Archives Nationales. Retrieved 30 October 2020.
  8. Bertényi, Iván (2006). "A kommunális heraldika napjainkban". In Takács, Edit (ed.). Magyar Levéltárosok Egyesülete 2004. évi Vándorgyűlése (in Hungarian). Budapest: Magyar Levéltárosok Egyesülete. pp. 174–177. ISBN 9632182278. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  9. Dr. Fodros, Péter (2018). ""Magyarország nemzetiségpolitikája európai szinten is példaértékű" Interjú dr. Semjén Zsolt miniszterelnök-helyettessel" ["Hungary’s national policy is exemplary at a European level" Interview with H.E. Dr Zsolt Semjén, Deputy Prime Minister] (PDF). Diplomata Magazin. Budapest: Diplomata Magazin Kiadó Kft. 18 (9): 3. ISSN 1419-1733. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  10. Regulation
  11. Attribuzioni
  12. "State Heraldry Commission". Latvijas Valsts Prezidents. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  13. Galkus, Juozas (2009). Lietuvos Vytis / The Vytis of Lithuania. Vilnius: Vilniaus dailės akademijos leidykla. p. 368. ISBN 9789955854449.
  14. "The Malta Government Gazette(15 June 2019)" (PDF). Retrieved 21 June 2019.
  15. Mifsud, Anthony C. (21 July 2021). Report on Case No U 0059 (PDF) (Report).
  16. "Portuguese Law on Municipal Heraldry (1991)".
  17. See the registry:
  18. Heraldry Act, 1962, as amended, at World Intellectual Property Organisation website.

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