Hidalgo (Spanish pronunciation: [iˈðalɣo]), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Hidalgo (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Hidalgo) is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, constitute the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 84 municipalities and its capital city is Pachuca de Soto. Located in the eastern part of the country, Hidalgo is bordered by San Luis Potosí and Veracruz on the north, Puebla on the east, Tlaxcala and State of Mexico on the south and Querétaro on the west.
|Free and Sovereign State of Hidalgo|
Estado Libre y Soberano de Hidalgo (Spanish)
|Capital||Pachuca de Soto|
|Largest City||Pachuca de Soto|
|Admission||January 16, 1869|
|• Governor||Omar Fayad (PRI)|
|• Senators||Angélica García Julio Menchaca Nuvia Mayorga |
|• Total||20,813 km2 (8,036 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||3,350 m (10,990 ft)|
|• Density||150/km2 (380/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||8th|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
|ISO 3166 code||MX-HID|
|HDI||0.761 High Ranked 23rd|
|GDP||US$ 9,987.65 mil[a]|
|Website||Official Web Site|
|^ a. The state's GDP was 127,841,908 thousand of pesos in 2008, amount corresponding to 9,987,649.06 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).|
In 1869, Benito Juárez created the State of Hidalgo and made Pachuca its capital city; Juárez would add the name "de Soto" in recognition of Manuel Fernando Soto, who is considered the most important driving force in creating the state. The state was named after Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, the initiator of the Mexican War of Independence.
The indigenous peoples of the state, such as the Otomi, retain much of their traditional culture. In addition to Mexicans of Spanish descent, there are also notable immigrant cultures: those of the descendants of Cornish miners from Cornwall (located in South West England) who arrived in the 19th century, a few self-proclaimed Italian descendants, and a small Jewish enclave which claims to be descended from Sephardi Jews which came to New Spain in the 16th century.
Hidalgo is known for its mountainous terrain, though part of the state is on a coastal plain. With a population of 2.858 million and an area of roughly 20,813 square km, Hidalgo is one of Mexico's smaller states. The state contains a number of ecotourism, cultural and archeological attractions including the Huasteca area, the ruins of Tula, natural hot water springs, old haciendas and mountain ranges.