Hiiumaa (US: /ˈhʊmɑː, ˈhəmɑː/,[2][3] Estonian: [ˈhiːumɑː]) is the second largest island in Estonia and is part of the West Estonian archipelago, in the Baltic Sea. It has an area of 989 km2 and is 22 km from the Estonian mainland. Its largest town is Kärdla. It is located within Hiiu County.[4][5]

Tahkuna peninsula is the northernmost part of Hiiumaa
LocationBaltic Sea
ArchipelagoWest Estonian archipelago
Area989 km2 (382 sq mi)
Highest elevation68 m (223 ft)
Highest pointTornimägi
County, parishHiiu County, Hiiumaa Parish
Largest settlementKärdla (pop. 3,287 [as of 1 January 2012][1])
Population9,558 (2019)
Pop. density9.1/km2 (23.6/sq mi)

Hiiumaa was controlled by the Brothers of the Sword in the early 1200s (known as the Teutonic Knights from 1237). During this time it was first settled by Swedes and Germans. The island was ruled first from Denmark, then from Sweden, in the 1500s, and from Russia in the 1700s. It gained independence as part of Estonia in 1920 before being occupied by the Soviet Union from 1940 until 1991, when Estonia regained its independence.[4]