Hindi

Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, ISO: Hindī), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, ISO: Mānak Hindī),[8] is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in North India. Hindi has been described as a standardised and Sanskritised register[9] of the Hindustani language, which itself is based primarily on the Khariboli dialect of Delhi and neighbouring areas of Northern India.[10][11][12] Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the two official languages of the Government of India, along with the English language.[13] It is an official language in 9 States and 3 Union Territories and an additional official language in 3 other States.[14][15][16][17] Hindi is also one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India.[18]

Hindi
Modern Standard Hindi
हिन्दीHindī
The word "Hindi" in Devanagari script
Pronunciation[ˈɦɪndiː]
Native toIndia
RegionNorthern, Eastern, Western and Central India (Hindi Belt)
Native speakers
L1 speakers: 322 million speakers of Hindi and various related languages reported their language as 'Hindi' (2011 census)[1]
L2 speakers: 270 million (2016)[2]
Early forms
Dialects
Signed Hindi
Official status
Official language in
 India  Fiji
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byCentral Hindi Directorate[7]
Language codes
ISO 639-1hi
ISO 639-2hin
ISO 639-3hin
hin-hin
Glottologhind1269
Linguasphere59-AAF-qf
Distribution of L1 self-reported speakers of Hindi in India per the 2011 Census.
  0%
  100%

Hindi is the lingua franca of the Hindi belt and to a lesser extent other parts of India (usually in a simplified or pidginised variety such as Bazaar Hindustani or Haflong Hindi).[14][19] Outside India, several other languages are recognised officially as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi language described here and instead descend from other dialects, such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri. Such languages include Fiji Hindi, which is official in Fiji,[20] and Caribbean Hindustani, which is spoken in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname.[21][22][23][24] Apart from the script and formal vocabulary, standard Hindi is mutually intelligible with standard Urdu, another recognised register of Hindustani as both share a common colloquial base.[25]

As a linguistic variety, Hindi is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin, Spanish and English.[26] Hindi alongside Urdu as Hindustani is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English.[27][28]