Hispaniola

Hispaniola (/ˌhɪspənˈjlə/,[3][4][5] also UK: /-pænˈ-/;[6] Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taino: Ayiti),[7][8] is an island in the Caribbean that is part of the Greater Antilles. Hispaniola is the most populous island in the West Indies, and the region's second largest in area, after the main island of Cuba.

Hispaniola
La Española  (Spanish)
Hispaniola  (French)
Ispayola  (Haitian Creole)
Ayiti  (Taino)
Geography
LocationCaribbean
Coordinates19°N 71°W
ArchipelagoGreater Antilles
Area76,192 km2 (29,418 sq mi)
Area rank22nd
Coastline3,059 km (1900.8 mi)
Highest elevation3,175 m (10417 ft)[1]
Highest pointPico Duarte
Administration
Capital and largest citySanto Domingo (pop. 2,201,941)
Area covered48,445 km2 (18,705 sq mi; 63.6%)
Capital and largest cityPort-au-Prince (pop. 1,234,742)
Area covered27,747 km2 (10,713 sq mi; 36.4%)
Demographics
Population22,278,000[2] (2020)
Pop. density280.8/km2 (727.3/sq mi)

The 76,192-square-kilometre (29,418 sq mi) island is divided into two separate nations: the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic (48,445 km2, 18,705 sq mi) to the east and French / Haitian Creole-speaking Haiti (27,750 km2, 10,710 sq mi) to the west. The only other divided island in the Caribbean is Saint Martin, which is shared between France (Saint Martin) and the Netherlands (Sint Maarten).

Hispaniola is the site of one of the first European settlements in the Americas, La Navidad (1492–1493), as well as the first proper town, La Isabela (1493–1500), and the first permanent settlement – the current capital of the Dominican Republic, Santo Domingo (est. 1498). These settlements were founded successively in each of Christopher Columbus's first three voyages.[9][10][11][12]