Ho Chi Minh

Hồ Chí Minh (/h mɪn/;[1] Vietnamese: [hò cǐ mīŋ̟] (listen), Saigon: [hò cǐ mɨ̄n]; Chữ Hán: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung,[2][lower-alpha 1][4] also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành, Nguyễn Ái Quốc, Bác Hồ, or simply Bác ('Uncle', pronounced [ʔɓaːk̚˦˥]), was a Vietnamese revolutionary and politician. He served as Prime Minister of North Vietnam from 1945 to 1955 and President from 1945 until his death in 1969. Ideologically a Marxist–Leninist, he served as Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.

Hồ Chí Minh
Portrait of Hồ Chí Minh, c.1947
Chairman of the Workers' Party of Vietnam
In office
19 February 1951  2 September 1969
General SecretaryTrường Chinh
Lê Duẩn (acting)
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byPosition abolished
First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam
In office
1 November 1956  10 September 1960
Preceded byTrường Chinh
Succeeded byLê Duẩn
1st President of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
In office
2 September 1945  2 September 1969
Preceded byPosition established
Bảo Đại (as Emperor)
Succeeded byTôn Đức Thắng
1st Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam
In office
2 September 1945  20 September 1955
Preceded byPosition established
Trần Trọng Kim (as Prime Minister of the Empire of Vietnam)
Succeeded byPhạm Văn Đồng
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
28 August 1945  2 March 1946
Preceded byTrần Văn Chương
(Empire of Vietnam)
Succeeded byNguyễn Tường Tam
In office
3 November 1946  March 1947
Preceded byNguyễn Tường Tam
Succeeded byHoàng Minh Giám
Full Member of the 2nd and 3rd Politburo
In office
31 March 1935  2 September 1969
Personal details
Born
Nguyễn Sinh Cung

(1890-05-19)19 May 1890
Kim Liên, Nam Đàn, Nghệ An, Annam, French Indochina
Died2 September 1969(1969-09-02) (aged 79)
Hanoi, North Vietnam
Resting placeHo Chi Minh Mausoleum
Nationality
Political partyFrench Section of the Workers' International
(1919–1921)
French Communist Party
(1921–1925)
Communist Party of Vietnam
(1925–1969)
Spouse(s)Tăng Tuyết Minh (m. 1926)
Relations
Parents
Alma materCommunist University of the Toilers of the East
Profession
  • Politician
  • revolutionary
Signature
Vietnamese name
VietnameseHồ Chí Minh
Hán-Nôm
Vietnamese birth name
VietnameseNguyễn Sinh Cung
Hán-Nôm

Hồ Chí Minh led the Việt Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the Communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeating the French Union in 1954 at the Battle of Điện Biên Phủ, ending the First Indochina War. He was a key figure in the People's Army of Vietnam and the Việt Cộng during the Vietnam War, which lasted from 1955 to 1975. North Vietnam was victorious against South Vietnam and its allies, and Vietnam was officially reunified in 1976. Saigon, the former capital of South Vietnam, was renamed Ho Chi Minh City in his honor. Ho officially stepped down from power in 1965 due to health problems, and died in 1969.

The details of Hồ Chí Minh's life before he came to power in Vietnam are uncertain. He is known to have used between 50[5]:582 and 200 pseudonyms.[6] Information on his birth and early life is ambiguous and subject to academic debate. At least four existing official biographies vary on names, dates, places and other hard facts while unofficial biographies vary even more widely.[7]

Aside from being a politician, Ho was also a writer, a poet and a journalist. He wrote several books, articles and poems in French, Chinese and Vietnamese.