Hong Kong national security law

The Hong Kong National Security Law, officially the Law of the People's Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR),[1] is a piece of national security legislation concerning Hong Kong. It was passed on 30 June 2020 by the mainland Standing Committee of the National People's Congress in the wake of intense pro-democracy protests instigated by a bill proposed in 2019 to enable extradition to the mainland, and came into force the same day.[2]

Law of the People's Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China
Territorial extentPeople's Republic of China (including Hong Kong; see also #Article 38 controversy)
Enacted byStanding Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China
Passed30 June 2020 (2020-06-30)
Signed30 June 2020 (2020-06-30)
Commenced30 June 2020 (2020-06-30)
Status: In force
Hong Kong national security law
Traditional Chinese香港國家安全法
Simplified Chinese香港国家安全法
Law of the People's Republic of China on Safeguarding National Security in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region
Traditional Chinese中華人民共和國香港特別行政區維護國家安全法
Simplified Chinese中华人民共和国香港特别行政区维护国家安全法

Among others, the national security law established the crimes of secession, subversion, terrorism, and collusion with foreign organizations.[2][3][4] The implementation of the law entitles authorities to surveil, detain, and search persons suspected under its provisions and to require publishers, hosting services, and internet service providers to block, remove, or restrict content which the authorities determine to be in violation thereof.[5][6] The law established an office outside of Hong Kong jurisdiction to administer enforcement of the law.[7]

Article 23 of the Hong Kong Basic Law, which came into force with the British handover of Hong Kong in 1997, requires that a national security law with some of these provisions be enacted by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Before the 2019-2020 protests and passage of the law, a 2003 attempt by the Hong Kong Legislative Council to satisfy Article 23 failed after mass demonstrations. Both the 2003 attempt at and the 2020 passage of legislation occurred during outbreaks of a novel coronavirus (SARS and COVID-19, respectively), which affected the actions of both protesters and authorities.

The text of the law drew strong criticism from 27 countries, mostly in the West, as well as Japan, prompting measures to put forward relaxed immigration laws for Hong Kong migrants by countries such as Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. The controversial law has also garnered particular attention to its Article 38, which states that the law is applicable also to those who are not permanent residents of Hong Kong, and to those who do not reside there; the provision has been interpreted by some[8] as saying that it is applicable to every individual in the world.