Hubris, or, less frequently, hybris (// or //, from ancient Greek ὕβρις), describes a personality quality of extreme or excessive pride or dangerous overconfidence, often in combination with (or synonymous with) arrogance. The term "arrogance" comes from the Latin adrogare, meaning to feel that one has a right to demand certain attitudes and behaviors from other people. To "arrogate" means "to claim or seize without justification... To make undue claims to having", or "to claim or seize without right... to ascribe or attribute without reason". The term "pretension" is also associated with the term hubris, but is not synonymous with hubris.[need quotation to verify] According to studies, hubris, arrogance and pretension are related to the need for victory (even if it doesn't always mean winning) instead of reconciliation, such as "friendly" groups might promote. Hubris is usually perceived as a characteristic of an individual rather than a group, although the group the offender belongs to may suffer collateral consequences from wrongful acts. Hubris often indicates a loss of contact with reality and an overestimation of one's own competence, accomplishments or capabilities. The adjectival form of the noun hubris is "hubristic" or "hybristic".
The term hubris originated in ancient Greek, where it had several different meanings depending on the context. In legal usage it meant assault or sexual crimes and theft of public property, and in religious usage it meant transgression against a god.