Hubris

Hubris (/ˈhjuːbrɪs/; from Ancient Greek ὕβρις (húbris) 'pride, insolence, outrage'), or less frequently hybris (/ˈhbrɪs/),[1] describes a personality quality of extreme or excessive pride[2] or dangerous overconfidence,[3] often in combination with (or synonymous with) arrogance.[4] The term arrogance comes from the Latin adrogare, meaning "to feel that one has a right to demand certain attitudes and behaviors from other people". To arrogate means "to claim or seize without justification... To make undue claims to having",[5] or "to claim or seize without right... to ascribe or attribute without reason".[6] The term pretension is also associated with the term hubris, but is not synonymous with it.[7][need quotation to verify]

Black-figure pottery (550 BC) depicting Prometheus serving his sentence, tied to a column.

According to studies, hubris, arrogance, and pretension are related to the need for victory (even if it does not always mean winning) instead of reconciliation, which "friendly" groups might promote.[8] Hubris is usually perceived as a characteristic of an individual rather than a group, although the group the offender belongs to may suffer collateral consequences from wrongful acts. Hubris often indicates a loss of contact with reality and an overestimation of one's own competence, accomplishments or capabilities. The adjectival form of the noun hubris/hybris is hubristic/hybristic.[1]

The term hubris originated in Ancient Greek,[9] where it had several different meanings depending on the context. In legal usage, it meant assault or sexual crimes and theft of public property,[10] and in religious usage it meant transgression against a god.[11]


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