Hubris, or, less frequently, hybris[1] (/ˈhjuːbrɪs/ or /ˈhbrɪs/, from ancient Greek ὕβρις), describes a personality quality of extreme or excessive pride[2] or dangerous overconfidence,[3] often in combination with (or synonymous with) arrogance.[4] The term "arrogance" comes from the Latin adrogare, meaning to feel that one has a right to demand certain attitudes and behaviors from other people. To "arrogate" means "to claim or seize without justification... To make undue claims to having",[5] or "to claim or seize without right... to ascribe or attribute without reason".[6] The term "pretension" is also associated with the term hubris, but is not synonymous with hubris.[7][need quotation to verify] According to studies, hubris, arrogance and pretension are related to the need for victory (even if it doesn't always mean winning) instead of reconciliation, such as "friendly" groups might promote.[8] Hubris is usually perceived[by whom?] as a characteristic of an individual rather than a group, although the group the offender belongs to may suffer collateral consequences from wrongful acts. Hubris often indicates a loss of contact with reality and an overestimation of one's own competence, accomplishments or capabilities. The adjectival form of the noun hubris is "hubristic" or "hybristic".[1]

Illustration for John Milton's Paradise Lost by Gustave Doré (1866). The spiritual descent of Lucifer into Satan — one of the most famous examples of hubris.

The term hubris originated in ancient Greek,[9] where it had several different meanings depending on the context: in legal usage it meant assault or sexual crimes and theft of public property,[10] and in religious usage it meant transgression against a god.[11]