Huelva (US: / ( ) /,, Spanish: [ˈwelba]) is a city in southwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Huelva in the autonomous community of Andalusia. It is located along the Gulf of Cádiz coast, in the estuary formed by the confluence of the Odiel and Tinto rivers. According to the 2010 census, the city had a population of 149,410. Huelva is home to Recreativo de Huelva, the oldest football club in Spain.
Portus Maris et Terrae Custodia
|Founded||Tenth century BC|
|• Mayor||Gabriel Cruz Santana (PSOE)|
|• Total||149 km2 (58 sq mi)|
|Elevation||54 m (177 ft)|
|• Density||970/km2 (2,500/sq mi)|
|Demonym(s)||onubense, (colloquially) choquero/a|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
21001 and otros
It has been tentatively defended the existence of pre-Phoenician settlement on the current urban limits since circa 1250 BC, with Phoenicians establishing a stable colony roughly by the 9th century BC.
At least up to the 1980s and 1990s, the mainstream view was that of Huelva being an autochtonous Tartessian settlement (even the very same Tartessos mentioned in Greek sources), while later views tended to rather stress a pluriethnic enclave mixing natives with peoples with a mainly Phoenician and later Greek extraction. However, following the (unsystematic) finding of Phoenician archaeological materials in the Méndez Núñez-Las Monjas site, the chronology about the Phoenician presence was reassessed, favouring the understanding of Huelva-Onoba as a very early Phoenician colony, a development which was parallel to a certain "dismantling" of the idea of Tartessos as a mainly autochtonous archaeological culture, even though the tentative identification of Huelva with Tartessos was not discarded, but the contrary. It has been also identified with the biblical Tarshish.
First contacts regarding the Phoenician presence in the area has been hypothesised to have taken place as early as 1015–975 BCE. However remains such as those found in the Méndez Núñez-Las Monjas site may not necessarily indicate a chronology for the founding of a Phoenician settlement earlier than the 9th century BCE, and they may possibly fit better with a founding date of a Tyrian settlement from the reign of Ithobaal I in the second quarter of the 9th century BCE, although the Méndez Núñez-Las Monjas' items have been also brought forward to consider an earlier 10th-century BCE chronology in the era of Hiram I (c. 975–950). The outpost was presumably primarily populated by continental Phoenicians, with some possible addition of the likes of Eteocypriots, Cypriot Phoenicians and Sardinian Phoenicians.
As a Phoenician outpost, it facilitated local exports such as silver, copper, purple dye and salted fish, while it also served as node in the trade routes connecting the Northern Atlantic, the Southern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Population notably increased from the mid-8th century BCE onward, possibly connected to the arrival of refugees fleeing from Tiglath-Pileser III and overall from the economic crisis and social unrest induced by the Assyrian subjugation of the Levant.
It was called ʿunʿu baʿl ("Baal's fort") by the Phoenicians.
The Greeks kept the name and rendered it Ὄνοβα (Onoba). The Tartessian world entered a crisis in the 6th century BCE. The transition from the Tartessian period to the ensuing Turdetani period was presumably slow and not traumatic, degenerating from an economy based on mining to a new one rather focused on the trade of agricultural and fishing products. It was in the hands of the Turdetani at the time of conquest by Rome, and before the conquest it issued silver coins with Iberian legends.
The place was called both Onoba Aestuaria or Onuba (used on coinage) during Roman times, or, simply, Onoba. It was incorporated into the Roman province of Hispania Baetica. According to the Antonine Itinerary, it was a maritime town between the rivers Anas, (modern Guadiana) and Baetis (modern Guadalquivir); it was situated on the estuary of the River Luxia (modern Odiel), and on the road from the mouth of the Anas to Augusta Emerita (modern Mérida). There are still some Roman remains. Huelva hosted a mint; and many coins have been found there bearing the name of the town as Onuba.
During the fitna of al-Andalus a weak and ephemeral taifa emerged following the demise of the Umayyad control over the area: the bakrid taifa of Saltés and Huelva, longing from 1012 to 1051, when it was annexed by the more powerful Taifa of Seville, to be later occupied by the Almoravids in 1091. By 1262, Huelva—then part of the Taifa of Niebla—was taken by Alfonso X of Castile. From 1265 onward, Huelva enjoyed an exemption from the portazgo tribute.
Following the Christian conquest, the town became a realengo ('royal demesne') for a brief spell until it was ceded in Lordship to Admiral Juan Mathé de la Luna in 1293 by Sancho IV of Castile. After a spell during which Huelva was probably controlled by Seville, the tenency of the lordship was passed to several lords, including Alonso Meléndez de Guzmán—brother of Eleanor de Guzmán—(in 1338) and Juan Alfonso de la Cerda (c. 1344). Huelva, again a realengo for a small period during the reign of Peter I, saw its privileges confirmed and was granted the right to choose the alcalde and the alguacil in 1351. The lordship was soon given to King's Mistress María de Padilla.
Early modern history
It suffered substantial damage in the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.
The mining operations caused severe sulfur dioxide pollution and were frequently accompanied by protests of local farmers, peasants and miners, allied under the anarchist syndicalist leader Maximiliano Tornet. On 4 February 1888, the Pavi Regiment of the Spanish Army opened fire on demonstrators at the village plaza of Rio Tinto. Historians estimate the number of deaths between 100 and 200. Environmentalists from the nearby Nerva village referred to 1888 as the "year of shots" a hundred years later in their protests against the province government's plans to site a large waste dump in a disused mine in the 1990s.
The local football club, Recreativo de Huelva was founded in 1889 by workers of Rio Tinto Group, a British mining company. Nicknamed the "Dean" of Spanish football, it is the longest living football club in the country.
The 17–18 July 1936 military coup d'état that started the Spanish Civil War failed in the city and much of the province. However, on 27 July 500 guardias civiles rose in arms against the Republic in the city, with the authorities escaping and later being shot down. Two days later, on 29 July, a rebel column from Seville on behalf of Gonzalo Queipo de Llano took control of the city. For the rest of the conflict it remained to the rear of the zone controlled by the Rebel faction. The ensuing Francoist repression took a heavy toll, with an estimated total of 6,019 deaths all over the province for the rearguard and post-war repression.
During World War II, the city was a hub of espionage activities led by members of the large British and German communities. German activity centered on reporting British shipping moving in and out of the Atlantic. Most famously, the city was the location where Operation Mincemeat allowed a body carrying false information to wash ashore.
On 11 October 2005, Hurricane Vince made landfall in Huelva as a tropical depression.
Huelva is located in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, in the Gulf of Cádiz, facing the Atlantic Ocean. The coastline straddling along the Gulf of Cádiz is known as Costa de la Luz. The city lies next to the estuary formed by the confluence of the Odiel and Tinto, sandwiched in between both rivers.
Huelva is home to Grupo Damas, a provincial bus company. Huelva's train station is now a shadow of its former self, and exists on a spur line. There are no trains to Portugal. Huelva's port hosts Naviera Armas' ferry Volcan del Teide, on which one can travel weekly to Arrecife and Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.
The is divided in two sectors: the inner port (in the city) and the outer port (the main one):
- The Inner Port (one wharf). Constructed in 1972, the East Wharf, replaced constructed harbour facilities of inferior quality between 1900 and 1910. At the moment it is the wharf used for smaller traffic including tourist boats.
- The Outer Port (six wharves) was built in 1965, and is located to the south of the River Tinto.
The Muelle de Riotinto was built in 1874-76 for the export of ore from Huelva to Britain. It is no longer in commercial use but is now a tourist attraction.
Huelva had a population of 149,410 in 2010. The city experienced a population boom in the nineteenth century, due to the exploitation of mineral resources in the area, and another with the construction of the Polo de Desarrollo in the 1960s. It had a population of 5,377 inhabitants in 1787, which had risen to only 8,519 by 1857. From 1887, the city experienced rapid growth, reaching 21,539 residents in 1900, 56,427 in 1940, and 96,689 in 1970. Rapid expansion occurred in the following decades and the population reached 141,479 by 1991.
In the last ten years,[when?] immigration both from abroad and from the surrounding area have sustained population growth. In 2007, the city reached the 145,000 mark, while the metropolitan area had nearly 232,000 inhabitants, encompassing the surrounding areas of Aljaraque, Moguer, San Juan del Puerto, Punta Umbría, Gibraleón, and Palos de la Frontera. The 2006 census recorded a foreign population of almost 5,000 people in the urban centre, the majority of whom were of Moroccan origin.
Huelva and its metropolitan area have a Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa), characterized by mild and wet winters and long warm to hot and dry summers. The average annual temperature is 23.9 °C (75.0 °F) during the day and 12.4 °C (54.3 °F) at night. The average annual precipitation is 525 mm (20.7 in) per year, there are about 52 rainy days per year. Extreme temperatures have been 43.8 °C (110.8 °F) recorded on 25 July 2004 and −3.2 °C (26.2 °F) recorded on 28 January 2005 at Ronda Este.
|Climate data for Huelva, Ronda Este 1981–2010|
|Record high °C (°F)||24.0
|Average high °C (°F)||16.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||11.0
|Average low °C (°F)||5.9
|Record low °C (°F)||−3.2
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||71
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1mm)||7||6||4||6||4||1||0||0||2||6||6||8||52|
|Average relative humidity (%)||77||74||68||65||62||57||51||55||61||69||73||78||66|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||165||171||229||255||296||341||367||340||268||211||176||151||2,970|
|Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología|
The most well-known artists in Huelva have been: the poet and winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature Juan Ramón Jiménez, the sculptor Antonio León Ortega, the writer Nicolas Tenorio Cerero and the painter Daniel Vázquez Díaz.
Other outstanding artists from Huelva include the painters José Caballero, Pedro Gómez y Gómez, Antonio Brunt, Mateo Orduña Castellano, Pablo Martínez Coto, Manuel Moreno Díaz, Juan Manuel Seisdedos Romero, Francisco Doménech, Esperanza Abot, José María Labrador, Sebastián García Vázquez, Pilar Barroso, Juan Carlos Castro Crespo, Lola Martín, Antonio Gómez Feu, Rafael Aguilera, and Florencio Aguilera Correa. Miguel Báez y Espuny , called el Litri, is a retired bullfighter very famous from Huelva, his son, named Miguel Báez Spínola, was also a very renowned bullfighter retired in 1999.
- Carnaval, fiesta
- Festival de Cine Iberoamericano de Huelva
- Columbian Festivals, fiesta first week of August
- Fiestas de la Cinta, between 3–8 September
- San Sebastián, festival 20 January
- Semana Santa (Easter Week)
- Virgen de la Cinta, fiesta 8 September
- El Rocio Romeria pilgrimage, every seventh August, a statue of the Virgin of el Rocio travels at night from El Rocio to Almonte.
Twin towns – sister cities
Huelva is twinned with:
- Informational notes
- The fictional "Major William Martin, Royal Marines" of Operation Mincemeat is buried in the San Marco section of the cemetery of Nuestra Senora under a headstone that reads:
William Martin, born 29 March 1907, died 24 April 1943, beloved son of John Glyndwyr and the late Antonia Martin of Cardiff, Wales, DULCE ET DECORUM EST PRO PATRIA MORI, R.I.P.The Commonwealth War Graves Commission in January 1998 added an inscription to the gravestone, which reads:
Glyndwr Michael served as Major William Martin.
- Municipal Register of Spain 2018. National Statistics Institute.
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- Padilla-Monge, Aurelio (2015). "Huelva y el inicio de la colonización fenicia de la Península Ibérica". Pyrenae. 47 (1): 95–96. doi:10.1344/Pyrenae2016.vol47num1.3. ISSN 0079-8215.
- Ferrer Albelda & Prados Pérez 2018, p. 234.
- Ferrer Albelda & Prados Pérez 2018, pp. 234–235.
- Ferrer Albelda & Prados Pérez 2018, p. 235.
- Padilla-Monge 2016, p. 99.
- Mederos Martín 2006, p. 167.
- Padilla-Monge 2016, p. 100.
- Mederos Martín 2006, pp. 167; 171.
- Padilla-Monge 2016, p. 101.
- Rufete Tomico 2001, pp. 162; 189.
- Rufete Tomico 2001, pp. 189–190.
- Greek: Ὄνοβα Αἰστουάρια, Ptolemy, ii. 4. § 5.
- Strabo, iii. p. 143, Pomponius Mela, iii. 1. § 5.
- Antonine Itinerary, p. 431
- Enrique Florez, Med. ii. pp. 510, 649; Théodore Edme Mionnet, i. p. 23, Suppl. p. 39; Sestini, Med. Isp. p. 75, ap. Friedrich August Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1. p. 340.
- Amat Cortés, Joan (2008). "La ocupación árabe de Besalú". Quaderns de les Assemblees d'Estudis (10).
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- David Avery, Not on Queen Victoria's Birthday: The Story of the Rio Tinto Mines, Collins, London, 1974. p. 207; 6, pp. 83 ff.
- Joan Martinez-Alier, Mining conflicts, environmental justice, and valuation, in Journal of Hazardous Materials 86 (2001) 153–170
- Díaz Domínguez, María Paz (2016). Cincuenta años en la prensa de Huelva: de los años veinte a los albores de la democracia (1923-1975). Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Huelva. p. 148. ISBN 978-84-16621-80-4.
- Cobo Romero, Francisco (2012). "Las cifras de la violencia institucional y las implicaciones de la represión sobre las actitudes sociales y políticas de la población andaluza". In Francisco Cobo Romero (ed.). La represión franquista en Andalucía: balance historiográfico, perspectivas teóricas y análisis de los resultados (PDF). 1. Centro de Estudios Andaluces. p. 90. ISBN 978-84-939926-0-6.
- Gladwell, Malcolm, Pandora's Briefcase, The New Yorker, 10 May 2010, reprised 2015.07.26 by Henry Finder in a New Yorker newsletter
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- Cano García, Gabriel; Jordá Borrell, Rosa (2003). "Antiguos puertos e islas en el litoral andaluz: cartografía, toponimia e historia" (PDF). Cuadernos de Geografía (73): 39–54. ISSN 0210-086X.
- Ferrer Albelda, Eduardo; Prados Pérez, Eduardo (2018). "Tarteso = Huelva: una identificación controvertida". In Campos Jara, Pedro (ed.). Arqueología y territorio en la provincia de Huelva: veinte años de las Jornadas de Aljaraque (1998-2017). pp. 217–248. ISBN 978-84-8163-584-3.
- González Arce, José Damián (2018). "La adaptación de la fiscalidad aduanera a los intereses repobladores, comerciales y políticos. Andalucía, 1241-1550". Hispania. Revista Española de Historia. Madrid: Editorial CSIC. LXXVIII (258): 39–67. doi:10.3989/hispania.2018.002. ISSN 0018-2141.
- Mederos Martín, Alfredo (2006). "Fenicios en Huelva, en el siglo X AC, durante el reinado de Hîrâm I de Tiro" (PDF). Spal: Revista de prehistoria y arqueología de la Universidad de Sevilla. Seville: Universidad de Sevilla (15): 167–188. doi:10.12795/spal.2006.i15.08. ISSN 1133-4525.
- Padilla-Monge, Aurelio (2016). "Huelva y el inicio de la colonización fenicia de la Península Ibérica". Pyrenae. Barcelona: Universitat de Barcelona. 47 (1): 95–117. doi:10.1344/Pyrenae2016.vol47num1.3. ISSN 0079-8215.
- Rufete Tomico, Pilar (2001). "El final de Tartessos y el periodo Turdetano en Huelva" (PDF). Huelva Arqueológica (17): 3–204. ISSN 0211-1187.