Human migration

Human migration involves the movement of people from one place to another with intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily, at a new location (geographic region). The movement often occurs over long distances and from one country to another, but internal migration (within a single country) is also possible; indeed, this is the dominant form of human migration globally.[1] Migration is often associated with better human capital at both individual and household level, and with better access to migration networks. Age is also important for both work and non-work migration.[2] People may migrate as individuals, in family units or in large groups.[3] There are four major forms of migration: invasion, conquest, colonization and emigration/immigration.[4]

Annual Net Migration Rate 2015–2020. Prediction by UN in 2019.

Persons moving from their home due to forced displacement (such as a natural disaster or civil disturbance) may be described as displaced persons or, if remaining in the home country, internally-displaced persons. A person who seeks refuge in another country can, if the reason for leaving the home country is political, religious, or another form of persecution, make a formal application to that country where refuge is sought and is then usually described[by whom?] as an asylum seeker. If this application is successful this person's legal status becomes that of a refugee.

In contemporary times,[when?] migration governance has become closely associated with state sovereignty. States retain the power of deciding on the entry and stay of non-nationals because migration directly affects some of the defining elements of a State.[citation needed]