Hundred Years' War
The Hundred Years' War (French: La guerre de Cent Ans; 1337–1453) was a series of conflicts between the kingdoms of England and France during the Late Middle Ages. It originated from disputed claims to the French throne between the English royal House of Plantagenet and the French royal House of Valois. Over time, the war grew into a broader power struggle involving factions from across Western Europe, fueled by emerging nationalism on both sides.
|Hundred Years' War|
|Part of the Anglo-French Wars|
Clockwise, from top left: the Battle of La Rochelle, the Battle of Agincourt, the Battle of Patay, and Joan of Arc at the Siege of Orléans
|Commanders and leaders|
|Wars of Plantagenet England|
The Hundred Years' War was one of the most notable conflicts of the Middle Ages. For 116 years, interrupted by several truces, five generations of kings from two rival dynasties fought for the throne to the largest kingdom in Western Europe. The war had a long effect on European history. Both sides produced innovations in military technology, strategy, and tactics, such as professional standing armies and artillery, that permanently changed warfare; chivalry, which had reached its height during the conflict, subsequently declined. Stronger national identities took root in both countries, which became more centralised and gradually rose as global powers.
The term "Hundred Years' War" was adopted by later historians as a historiographical periodisation to encompass related conflicts, constructing the longest military conflict in European history. The war is commonly divided into three phases separated by truces: the Edwardian War (1337–1360), the Caroline War (1369–1389), and the Lancastrian War (1415–1453). Each side drew many allies into the conflict, with English forces initially prevailing; the House of Valois ultimately retained control over France, with the previously-intertwined French and English monarchies thereafter remaining separate.