History of diplomatic relations of Hungary and Serbia dates back to 21 November 1882, when they were established between Serbia and Austria-Hungary. Today, Hungary has an embassy in Belgrade and a general consulate in Subotica, while Serbia has an embassy in Budapest and an honorary consulate in Szeged.
The two countries share 151 km of common border. There are around 254,000 people of Hungarian descent according to the latest census living in northern Serbia (particularly in Vojvodina) and around 7,000 people of traditional Serbian descent living in Hungary (not counting migrants from Serbia to Hungary since the 1990s).
Hungary and Serbia share a long historical contact, but both have been characterized between cooperation and conflict. Hungarian and Serbian refugees fled from Ottoman occupations used to be parts of the famous Winged Hussars, a military regiment of the previous Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. However, relationship between two states turned tense in the later half of the 19th century, with the establishment of the Kingdom of Serbia and Serbian interests toward Bosnia and Herzegovina and Vojvodina, both have significant Serbian population. As part of Austria-Hungary, the Hungarian army formed a significant part of the invading army on Serbia at the World War I. After the war, Hungary lost Vojvodina, a former territory of the Kingdom of Hungary, to Serbia.
Hungary signed a non-aggression and "Treaty of Eternal Friendship" with Yugoslavia on 12 December 1940. However, Hungary participated in the Axis invasion on Yugoslavia which prompted the then Prime Minister of Hungary Pál Teleki to commit suicide. In the communist era, Yugoslavia's Josip Broz Tito was against the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 and supportive of Soviet military uses against Hungarians; but the suppression of Hungarian protesters by Soviet army might have influenced Tito's decision to change against the Soviets at the Prague Spring a decade later.
The relationship between Serbia and Hungary went downhill in the 1990s, when Yugoslavia started to disintegrate. Hungary was one of the earliest supporters of newly independent Croatia, and was among the major participants in the NATO-led bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999. This strained relations between the two countries, with Hungary also sharing concerns over its Hungarian population in Yugoslavia. Later, the relations continued to worsen, with Hungary being one of the earliest nations in the world to recognize Kosovo as an independent state.
In 2013, a historical reconciliation was marked after decades of tensions between Belgrade and Budapest. The President of Hungary, János Áder gave a speech in front of the National Assembly where he issued an official apology for the Hungarian role in the World War II persecution of Serbs such as Novi Sad raid. In turn, in 2014 the Serbian National Assembly symbolically voided Yugoslav laws on collective guilt of Hungarian people for crimes committed during World War II.
Serbian heritage in Hungary
The presence of Serbs in the territory of present-day Hungary dates from the Middle Ages. The mother of the Hungarian king Géza II (1141-1162) was Helena of Serbia, a daughter of Uroš I, ruler of the Grand Principality of Serbia,. During the rule of Géza II, her brother Beloš Vukanović was a palatine of the Kingdom of Hungary. Since the 14th century, escaping from the Ottoman threat, a large number of Serbs migrated to the Kingdom of Hungary.
The most complex example of Serb architectural heritage in Hungary is the old town of Szentendre (Serbian: Sentandreja), next to the Danube, with 7 Orthodox Churches (two of which have been sold), brightly coloured merchant houses and the Museum of Serb Orthodox Heritage. In Budapest, the Serb Orthodox Cathedral in the Tabán district was damaged in WWII and later demolished. There is an old Serb Orthodox Church in Serb Street, Pest and the famous Serb college, Thökölyanum (Serbian: Tekelijanum).
There are Serbian churches in Vác (Vac), Székesfehérvár (Stoni Beograd) with a Serbian open-air village museum, Szeged (Segedin), Baja (Baja) with two churches, Mohács (Mohač), Siklós (Šikloš), Eger (Jegra), Győr (Đur), Esztergom (Ostrogon), Hódmezővásárhely (Vašarhelj).
There are also village churches in Pomáz (Pomaz), Csobánka (Čobanac), Izbég, Ráckeve (Srpski Kovin, rare example of Serb Gothic architecture from the 15th century), Lórév (Lovra), Szigetcsép (Čip), Budakalász (Kalaz), Magyarcsanád (Čanad), Battonya (Batanja), Deszk (Deska), Szőreg (Sirig), Dunapentele (Pantelija, now Dunaújváros), Százhalombatta (Bata), Dunaföldvár (Feldvar), Alsónána (Donja Nana), Bátaszék (Batsek, demolished in the 1960s), Medina (Medina), Illocska (Iločac), Magyarbóly (Madžarboja), Dunaszekcső (Sečuj), Villány (Viljan), Sárok (Šarok), Majs (Majš), Lippó (Lipova), Beremend (Breme), Erdősmecske (Racmečka), Somberek (Šumberak), Véménd (Vemend, demolished), Nagybudmér (Veliki Budmir, demolished in 2001), Hercegszántó (Santovo), Újszentiván (Novi Sentivan).
Hungarian heritage in Serbia
Parts of the Vojvodina region were included into the medieval Kingdom of Hungary in the 10th century, and Hungarians then began to settle in the region, which before that time was mostly populated by Slavs. During Hungarian administration, Hungarians formed the largest part of population in northern parts of the region. Count Imre Csáky settled Hungarians in his possessions in Bačka in 1712. In 1745, Hungarian colonists settled in Senta, in 1750 in Topola, in 1752 in Doroslovo, in 1772 in Bogojevo, in 1760 in Stara Kanjiža, in 1764 in Iđoš, in 1767 in Petrovo Selo, in 1776 in Martonoš, in 1786 in Pačir and Ostojićevo, in 1787 in Piroš, and in 1789 in Feketić. Between 1782 and 1786, Hungarians settled in Crvenka and Stara Moravica, and in 1794 in Kula. Between 1751 and 1753, Hungarians settled in Mol and Ada (Those originated mostly from Szeged and Jászság). In 1764–1767, Hungarians settled in Subotica, Bajmok and Čantavir, and in 1770 again in Kanjiža, Mol, Ada and Petrovo Selo, as well as in Feldvarac, Sentomaš and Turija. In Banat, the settling of Hungarians started later. In 1784 Hungarians settled in Padej and Nakovo, in 1776 in Torda, in 1786 in Donji Itebej, in 1796 in Beodra and Čoka, in 1782 in Monoštor, in 1798 in Mađarska Crnja, in 1773 in Krstur and Majdan, in 1774 in Debeljača, in 1755–1760 in Bečkerek, and in 1766 in Vršac. In the 19th century, the Hungarian colonization increased. From the beginning of the century, the Hungarian individuals and small groups of settlers from Alföld constantly immigrating to Bačka. In the first half of the 19th century larger and smaller groups of the colonists settled in Mol (in 1805), as well as in Feldvarac, Temerin and Novi Sad (in 1806). In 1884, Hungarian colonists settled in Šajkaška and in Mali Stapar near Sombor. In 1889, Hungarians were settled in Svilojevo near Apatin and in 1892 in Gomboš, while another group settled in Gomboš in 1898. Many Hungarian settlers from Gomboš moved to Bačka Palanka. After the abolishment of the Military Frontier, Hungarian colonists were settled in Potisje, Čurug, Žabalj, Šajkaški Sveti Ivan, Titel and Mošorin. In 1883 around 1,000 Székely Hungarians settled in Kula, Stara Kanjiža, Stari Bečej and Titel. In 1800, smaller groups of Hungarian colonists from Dunántúl settled in Čoka, while in the same time colonists from Csanád and Csongrád counties settled in area around Itebej and Crnja, where they at first lived in scattered small settlements, and later they formed one single settlement - Mađarska Crnja. In 1824, one group of colonists from Čestereg also settled in Mađarska Crnja. In 1829 Hungarians settled in Mokrin, and in 1880 an even larger number of Hungarians settled in this municipality. In 1804, Hungarian colonists from Csongrád county settled in Firiđhaza (which was then joined with Turska Kanjiža), as well as in Sajan and Torda. Even a larger group of Hungarians from Csongrád settled in 1804 in Debeljača. In 1817–1818 Hungarians settled in Veliki Bikač, and in 1820–1840 smaller groups of Hungarians settled in Vranjevo. In 1826, colonists from Jászság and Kunság settled in Arač near Beodra. In 1830, Hungarians from Alföld settled in Veliki Lec, in 1831 in Ostojićevo, in 1832 in Malenčino Selo near Veliki Gaj, in 1839 and 1870 in Padej, in 1840 in Jermenovci and Mađarski Sentmihalj, in 1840–1841 in Dušanovac, in 1841 in Hetin, in 1859 in Sanad, in 1869 in Đurđevo (later moved to Skorenovac), and in 1890 in Gornja Mužlja. In 1883–1886, Székely Hungarians from Bukovina were settled in Vojlovica, Skorenovac, Ivanovo and Đurđevo. Total number of Székely colonists was 3,520.
Hungary → Serbia
A mutual trade plays an important role in the economy of both countries. In 2015, Serbia was the 18th most important trading partner of Hungary. Serbia was among one of, the most important countries for Hungary (export: the 18th place, import: the 26th place).
Resident diplomatic missions
- Hungary has an embassy in Belgrade (Belgrád) and a general consulate in Subotica (Szabadka). Ambassador of Hungary in Serbia is dr. Attila Pintér as of 18 November 2014.
- Serbia has an embassy in Budapest (Будимпешта) and an honorary consulate in Szeged (Сегедин). Ambassador of Serbia, in Hungary is Rade Drobac as of 9 May 2013.
- Foreign relations of Hungary
- Foreign relations of Serbia
- Hungary–Yugoslavia relations
- Hungarians in Serbia
- Serbs in Hungary
References and notes
- Patterson, Tony (7 April 2014). "A History of the First World War in 100 Moments: Austro-Hungarian army executes civilians in Serbia". The Independent.
- Thorpe, Nick (3 June 2020). "The 100-year wound that Hungary cannot forget". BBC.
- Horthy, Miklós; Andrew L. Simon (Original Text Copyright 1957). "The Annotated Memoirs of Admiral Milklós Horthy, Regent of Hungary". Ilona Bowden. Archived from the original on January 4, 2010. Retrieved July 6, 2012. Check date values in:
- Granville, Johanna (1998). "Josip Broz Tito's Role in the 1956 'Nagy Affair'". The Slavonic and East European Review. 76 (4): 672–702. JSTOR 4212735.
- "Between the Republic of Hungary and the Republic of Croatia on the protection of the Hungarian minority in the republic of Croatia and the Croatian minority in the Republic of Hungary" (PDF). regione.taa.it.
- "Budapest fears Yugo attack on ethnic Hungarians". CNN. 30 April 1999.
- Historical reconciliation between Hungary and Serbia
- "Hungary's president apologizes to Serbia for WW2 crimes". Budapest Business Journal. 27 June 2013.
- Big Step Forward In Hungarian-Serbian Reconciliation
- "MKIK Gazdaság- és Vállalkozáskutató Intézet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-12-09. Retrieved 2016-12-29.
- Embassy of Hungary in Belgrade
- General Consulate of Hungary in Subotica
- Embassy of Serbia in Budapest
- Krestić, Vasilije (2015). "The Serbs in Hungary during the First World War". The Serbs and the First World War 1914-1918. Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. pp. 43–56.
- McDaniel, Gordon L. (1984). "On Hungarian-Serbian Relations in the Thirteenth Century: John Angelos and Queen Jelena" (PDF). Ungarn-Jahrbuch. 12 (1982-1983): München, 1984: 43–50.
- Margalits, Ede (1918). Szerb történelmi repertorium (PDF). Budapest: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia.
- Пот, Иштван (1993). Српско-мађарски културни односи у XIX веку. Нови Сад: Матица српска.
- Thallóczy, Lajos; Áldásy, Antal, eds. (1907). Magyarország és Szerbia közti összeköttetések oklevéltára 1198-1526. Budapest: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia.