Hydrogen chloride

Hydrogen chloride
Skeletal formula of hydrogen chloride with a dimension
Space-filling model of hydrogen chloride with atom symbols
Names
IUPAC name
Hydrogen chloride[1]
Other names
Hydrochloric acid gas

Hydrochloric gas

Hydrochloride
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
1098214
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.723
EC Number
  • 231-595-7
322
KEGG
MeSH Hydrochloric+acid
RTECS number
  • MW4025000
UNII
UN number 1050
  • InChI=1S/HCl/h1H N
    Key: VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-N Y
  • InChI=1/HCl/h1H
    Key: VEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYAT
  • Cl
Properties
HCl
Molar mass 36.46 g/mol
Appearance Colorless gas
Odor pungent; sharp and burning
Density 1.49 g/L[2]
Melting point −114.22 °C (−173.60 °F; 158.93 K)
Boiling point −85.05 °C (−121.09 °F; 188.10 K)
823 g/L (0 °C)
720 g/L (20 °C)
561 g/L (60 °C)
Solubility soluble in methanol, ethanol, ether
Vapor pressure 4352 kPa (at 21.1 °C)[3]
Acidity (pKa) −3.0;[4] −5.9 (±0.4)[5]
Basicity (pKb) 17.0
Conjugate acid Chloronium
Conjugate base Chloride
1.0004456 (gas)
1.254 (liquid)
Viscosity 0.311 cP (−100 °C)
Structure
linear
1.05 D
Thermochemistry
0.7981 J/(K·g)
186.902 J/(K·mol)
−92.31 kJ/mol
−95.31 kJ/mol
Pharmacology
A09AB03 (WHO) B05XA13 (WHO)
Hazards
GHS labelling:
Danger
H280, H314, H331
P261, P280, P305+P351+P338, P310, P410+P403
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
238 mg/kg (rat, oral)
3124 ppm (rat, 1 h)
1108 ppm (mouse, 1 h)[6]
1300 ppm (human, 30 min)
4416 ppm (rabbit, 30 min)
4416 ppm (guinea pig, 30 min)
3000 ppm (human, 5 min)[6]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
C 5 ppm (7 mg/m3)[7]
REL (Recommended)
C 5 ppm (7 mg/m3)[7]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
50 ppm[7]
Safety data sheet (SDS) JT Baker MSDS
Related compounds
Related compounds
Hydrogen fluoride
Hydrogen bromide
Hydrogen iodide
Hydrogen astatide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
N verify (what is YN ?)
Infobox references

The compound hydrogen chloride has the chemical formula HCl and as such is a hydrogen halide. At room temperature, it is a colourless gas, which forms white fumes of hydrochloric acid upon contact with atmospheric water vapor. Hydrogen chloride gas and hydrochloric acid are important in technology and industry. Hydrochloric acid, the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride, is also commonly given the formula HCl.


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