Iain Duncan Smith
Sir George Iain Duncan Smith (born George Ian Duncan Smith; 9 April 1954), often referred to by his initials IDS, is a British politician who served as Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition from 2001 to 2003. He was later Secretary of State for Work and Pensions from 2010 to 2016. He has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Chingford and Woodford Green, formerly Chingford, since 1992.
Sir Iain Duncan Smith
|Secretary of State for Work and Pensions|
12 May 2010 – 18 March 2016
|Prime Minister||David Cameron|
|Preceded by||Yvette Cooper|
|Succeeded by||Stephen Crabb|
|Leader of the Opposition|
13 September 2001 – 6 November 2003
|Prime Minister||Tony Blair|
|Preceded by||William Hague|
|Succeeded by||Michael Howard|
|Leader of the Conservative Party|
13 September 2001 – 6 November 2003
|Preceded by||William Hague|
|Succeeded by||Michael Howard|
|Chair of the Social Justice Policy Group|
|Assumed office |
12 September 2016
|Preceded by||Rory Brooks|
7 December 2005 – 12 May 2010
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Mark Florman|
|Member of Parliament|
for Chingford and Woodford Green
|Assumed office |
9 April 1992
|Preceded by||Norman Tebbit|
George Ian Duncan Smith
9 April 1954
|Alma mater||Royal Military Academy Sandhurst|
|Years of service||1975–1981|
The son of a Royal Air Force flying ace, Duncan Smith was born in Edinburgh and raised in Solihull. After education at the training school HMS Conway and Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, he served in the Scots Guards from 1975 to 1981, seeing tours in Northern Ireland and Rhodesia. He joined the Conservative Party in 1981. After unsuccessfully contesting Bradford West in 1987, he was elected to Parliament at the 1992 general election.
After the resignation of William Hague, Duncan Smith won the 2001 Conservative Party leadership election, partly owing to the support of Margaret Thatcher for his Eurosceptic beliefs. However, many Conservative MPs came to consider him incapable of winning the next general election and, in 2003, passed a vote of no confidence in his leadership; he immediately resigned and was succeeded by Michael Howard. Returning to the backbenches, Duncan Smith became a published novelist. He then founded the Centre for Social Justice, a centre-right think tank independent of the Conservative Party, and became chair of its Social Justice Policy Group.
In May 2010, new Prime Minister David Cameron appointed him to serve in the cabinet as Secretary of State for Work and Pensions. During his tenure, he was responsible for seeing through changes to the welfare state. He resigned from the cabinet in March 2016, in opposition to Chancellor George Osborne's proposed cuts to disability benefits.
Early life, military service and professional career
Duncan Smith was born George Ian Duncan Smith on 9 April 1954 in Edinburgh. A second “i” was added to his middle name “Ian” later in life, with several explanations given: Smith changed it himself to prove that he was committed to Scotland; the person who filled in his birth certificate made a mistake; Smith's mother registered him, but Smith's patriotic father later suggested to his son to change it to the Scottish spelling.
He is the son of Wilfrid George Gerald "W. G. G." Duncan Smith, a decorated Royal Air Force flying ace of the Second World War, and Pamela Summers, a ballerina. His parents married in 1946. One of his maternal great-grandmothers was Ellen Oshey, a Japanese woman living in Beijing who married Pamela's maternal grandfather, Irish merchant seaman Captain Samuel Lewis Shaw. Through Ellen and Samuel, Duncan Smith is related to Canadian CBC wartime broadcaster Peter Stursberg (whose book No Foreign Bones in China records their story) and his son, former CBC vice-president Richard Stursberg.
Duncan Smith was educated at Bishop Glancey Secondary Modern School, until the age of 14, and then at HMS Conway, a Merchant Navy training school on the Isle of Anglesey, until he was 18. There, he played rugby union in the position of fly-half alongside Clive Woodward at centre. In 1973, he spent a year studying at the University for Foreigners in Perugia, Italy. He then attended the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and was commissioned into the Scots Guards as a second lieutenant on 28 June 1975, with the Personal Number 500263. He was promoted to lieutenant in the Scots Guards on 28 June 1977. During his service, he served in Northern Ireland and Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), where he was aide-de-camp to Major-General Sir John Acland, commander of the Commonwealth Monitoring Force monitoring the ceasefire during elections. He retired from the army on 2 April 1981, moving to the Regular Army Reserve of Officers. He ceased to belong to the Reserve of Officers on 29 June 1983.
Duncan Smith worked for GEC Marconi in the 1980s and attended the company's staff college Dunchurch College of Management. He did not gain any qualifications at Dunchurch and completed six separate courses lasting a few days each, adding up to roughly a month in total.
Early parliamentary career
At the 1987 general election Duncan Smith contested the constituency of Bradford West, where the incumbent Labour Party MP Max Madden retained his seat. At the 1992 general election he stood in the London constituency of Chingford, a safe Conservative seat, following the retirement of Conservative MP Norman Tebbit. He became a member of the House of Commons with a majority of nearly 15,000. A committed Eurosceptic, he became a constant thorn in the side of Prime Minister John Major's government of 1992 to 1997, opposing Major's pro-European agenda at the time (something that would often be raised during his own subsequent leadership when he called for the party to unite behind him).
Duncan Smith remained on the backbenches until 1997, when the new Conservative leader William Hague brought him into the Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Secretary of State for Social Security. At the 1997 general election, boundary changes saw his constituency renamed Chingford and Woodford Green and his majority of 14,938 was reduced to 5,714. Duncan Smith realised the dangers that he and neighbouring Conservative MPs faced, so redoubled his efforts: "We spent the final week of the campaign working my seat as if it was a marginal. I held on but everywhere around me went." In 1999, Duncan Smith replaced John Maples as Shadow Secretary of State for Defence.
Leader of the Conservative Party
William Hague resigned after the Labour Party continued in government with another large parliamentary majority following the 2001 general election. In September 2001, Duncan Smith was the successful candidate in the Conservative Party leadership election. Although he was initially viewed as an outsider, his campaign was bolstered when Margaret Thatcher publicly gave her support for him. His victory in the contest was helped by the fact that his opponent in the final vote of party members was Kenneth Clarke, whose strong support for the European Union was at odds with the views of much of the party.
Due to the September 11 attacks, the announcement of Duncan Smith gaining the Conservative leadership was delayed until 13 September 2001. In November 2001, he was one of the first politicians to call for an invasion of Iraq and held talks in Washington, DC, with senior US officials, including Vice President Dick Cheney, Condoleezza Rice and Paul Wolfowitz.
In the 2002 local elections, the first of two elections in which Duncan Smith led the party, the Conservatives gained 238 extra seats on local councils, primarily in England. The 2002 Conservative Party conference saw an attempt to turn Duncan Smith's lack of charisma into a positive attribute, with his much-quoted line, "do not underestimate the determination of a quiet man". This prompted Labour backbenchers to raise their fingers to their lips and say "shush" when he was speaking during Prime Minister's Questions.
Amid speculation that rebel MPs were seeking to undermine him, Duncan Smith called on the party to "Unite or die." On 23 February 2003, The Independent on Sunday newspaper published an article saying that 14 MPs were prepared to sign a petition for a vote of no confidence in Duncan Smith (25 signatories were then needed) for a vote on his removal as leader. Duncan Smith's 2003 conference speech favoured an aggressive hard-man approach which received several ovations from party members in the hall. "The quiet man is here to stay, and he's turning up the volume", Duncan Smith said.
In the 2003 local elections, the Conservatives gained 566 seats. Despite the gains made, Shadow Secretary of State for Trade and Industry Crispin Blunt resigned. He called Duncan Smith's leadership a "handicap" as he had "failed to make the necessary impact on the electorate," and said that he should be replaced. These worries came to a head in October 2003 when journalist Michael Crick revealed he had compiled embarrassing evidence, this time of dubious salary claims Duncan Smith made on behalf of his wife that were paid out of the public purse from September 2001 to December 2002. The ensuing scandal, known as "Betsygate", weakened his already tenuous position.
After months of speculation over a leadership challenge, Duncan Smith called upon critics within his party to either gather enough support to trigger a no-confidence motion or get behind him. A no confidence vote was called on Wednesday 29 October 2003, which Duncan Smith lost by 90 votes to 75. He stepped down eight days later on 6 November, with Michael Howard being confirmed as his successor. Duncan Smith became the first Conservative leader who did not lead his party in a general election campaign since Neville Chamberlain.
Return to the backbenches
The same week as Michael Howard succeeding him, Duncan Smith's novel The Devil's Tune was released to negative critical reception. In November 2003, he was appointed by Howard to the Conservative Party's advisory council, along with John Major, William Hague and Kenneth Clarke.
In 2004, Duncan Smith established the Centre for Social Justice, a centre-right think tank working with small charities with the aim of finding innovative policies for tackling poverty. On 7 December 2005, he was appointed Chairman of the Social Justice Policy Group, which was facilitated by the Centre for Social Justice. His deputy chair was Debbie Scott, the Chief Executive of the charity Tomorrow's People. The group released two major reports, Breakdown Britain and Breakthrough Britain. Breakdown Britain was a 300,000 word document that analysed what was going wrong in the areas of Economic Dependence and Unemployment, Family Breakdown, Addiction, Educational Failure, Indebtedness, and the Voluntary Sector. Breakthrough Britain recommended almost two hundred policy ideas using broadly the same themes.
Duncan Smith was re-elected comfortably in Chingford and Woodford Green at the 2005 general election, almost doubling his majority. In September 2006, he was one of fourteen authors of a report concerning antisemitism in Britain. He was also one of the only early supporters of the Iraq surge policy.
Secretary of State for Work and Pensions
Following the 2010 general election, Duncan Smith was appointed by Prime Minister David Cameron as Secretary of State for Work and Pensions in the Cameron–Clegg coalition. Under his leadership, the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) rolled out Universal Credit and a new Work Programme, as well as implemented a real terms cut in benefits. He also looked at "how to make it harder for sick and disabled people to claim benefits" by giving DWP staff more powers to conduct benefit eligibility tests and to strip benefits from claimants with serious but time-limited health conditions, but he was advised it would be illegal to introduce legislation not requiring parliamentary approval. The DWP was criticised by The Trussell Trust, Oxfam and Justin Welby for "scandalous" and "unacceptable" rises in food poverty and people being forced to use food banks. Duncan Smith himself was criticised by the UK Statistics Authority and National Institute of Economic and Social Research for breaking the Code of Practice for Official Statistics.
Shortly after being appointed, Duncan Smith said the government would encourage people to work for longer by making it illegal for companies to force staff to give up work at 65 and bringing forward the planned rises in the state pension age. He announced reforms to simplify benefits and tax credits into a single Universal Credit payment, arguing welfare reform would make low earners better off in employment. He promised targeted work activity, sanctions and possible removal of benefits for up to three years for those who refused to work. Benefits claimants with part-time incomes below a certain threshold would become required to search for additional work or risk losing access to their benefits. He said benefits were not a route out of child poverty but hundreds of thousands of children could be lifted out of child poverty if one of their parents were to work at least a 35-hour week at the national minimum wage.
In June 2011, Duncan Smith announced welfare-to-work programs would be replaced with a single Work Programme, which included incentives for private sector service providers to help the unemployed find long term employment. The DWP announced on the 2012 United Nations' International Day of Persons with Disabilities forced work for disabled people who received welfare benefits, in order to "Improve disabled people's chances of getting work by mandatory employment". In the 2012 Cabinet reshuffle, Duncan Smith was offered the job at the Ministry of Justice replacing Kenneth Clarke, but declined, and remained in his post at the DWP.
In April 2013, Duncan Smith said he could live on £53 per week as Work and Pensions Secretary, after a benefits claimant told the BBC he had £53 per week after housing costs. Also in April, he called for wealthier people to voluntarily return universal winter fuel payments to help reduce the strain on public finances, prompting some wealthier pensioners to state they had already tried this but had their offers refused because there was no mechanism for returning payments. In September, the DWP cancelled a week of "celebrations" to mark the impact of enhanced benefit sanctions. In the same month, the DWP was subject to an "excoriating" National Audit Office report, accusing the DWP of having "weak management, ineffective control and poor governance" and of wasting £34 million on inadequate computer systems. Duncan Smith dismissed allegations in Matthew d'Ancona's 2013 book In It Together that the Chancellor George Osborne had referred to him as "not clever enough". The allegations were also denied by Osborne.
In May 2014, it was reported the DWP was employing debt collectors to retrieve overpaid benefits, the overpayment purely down to calculation mistakes by HM Revenue and Customs. After the "workfare" element of the Work Programme was successfully challenged in the courts in 2013, Duncan Smith sought to re-establish the legality of the scheme through retrospective legislation but, in July 2014, the High Court ruled the retrospective nature of the legislation interfered with the "right to a fair trial" under Article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights. The DWP had said 1 million people would be placed on the new Universal Credit benefits system by April 2014, yet by October 2014 only 15,000 were assigned to UC. Duncan Smith said a final delivery date would not be set for this, declaring "Arbitrary dates and deadlines are the enemy of secure delivery."
Cameron majority government
In August 2015, Duncan Smith was criticised after the DWP admitted publishing fake testimonies of claimants enjoying their benefits cuts. Later the same month, publication of statistics showed 2,380 people died in a 3-year period shortly after a work capability assessment declared them fit for work leading Jeremy Corbyn to call for Duncan Smith's resignation. At the 2015 Conservative Party conference, Duncan Smith said to the sick and disabled "With our help, you'll work your way out of poverty" while criticising the current system, which he said "makes doctors ask a simplistic question: are you too sick to work at all? If the answer is yes, they’re signed off work – perhaps for ever."
In March 2016, Duncan Smith unexpectedly resigned from the Cabinet. He stated that he was unable to accept the government's planned cuts to disability benefits. He later launched an attack on the "government's austerity programme for balancing the books on the backs of the poor and vulnerable", describing this as divisive and "deeply unfair", and adding: "It is in danger of drifting in a direction that divides society rather than unites it."
Later backbench career
In the 2016 EU membership referendum, Duncan Smith campaigned to leave the EU working with the Vote Leave campaign, stating that staying in the EU "leaves the door open" to the UK enduring terrorist attacks. While he had opposed David Cameron over the referendum, sources close to Duncan Smith insisted his resignation as Work and Pensions Secretary was not about Europe.
In the 2019 Conservative Party leadership election, Duncan Smith served as chairman for Boris Johnson's leadership campaign, resulting in an emphatic win, with over 50% of MPs and 66% of the Conservative membership voting for Johnson to become the next Leader of the Conservative Party and Prime Minister. He was knighted in the 2020 New Year Honours, for political and public service. The honour sparked criticism, with more than 237,000 people signing an online petition, set up by Labour Party activist Dr Mona Kamal Ahmed, an NHS psychiatrist, demanding that it be rescinded.
In June 2020, Duncan Smith launched the Inter-Parliamentary Alliance on China, becoming the co-chair of the alliance in the UK with Labour peer, Helena Kennedy. The alliance seeks to, "promote a coordinated response between democratic states to challenges posed by the present conduct and future ambitions of the People’s Republic of China. By developing a common set of principles and frameworks that transcend domestic party divisions and international borders, our democracies will be able to keep the rules-based and human rights systems true to their founding purposes." In a launch message, Duncan Smith explained, "This challenge will outlast governments and administrations and it transcends party politics."
On 26 March 2021, it was announced that Duncan Smith was one of five MPs to be sanctioned by the Chinese government for spreading what it called "lies and disinformation" about the country. He was subsequently banned from entering China, Hong Kong and Macau and Chinese citizens and institutions became prohibited from doing business with him.
Views on gay rights and marriage
During his leadership campaign in 2001, Duncan Smith changed his stance from opposing repeal of Section 28 of the Local Government Act 1988 to supporting repeal. In 2003, his decision to compromise on the repeal of Section 28 was described as "illogical" and "messy" by other Conservative MPs. As leader, he imposed a three-line whip on a House of Lords amendment to the Adoption and Children Act 2002 that would have restricted adoption to married couples, thus ruling out unmarried heterosexual couples and gay couples. The amendment was rejected by 344 to 145, with eight Conservative MPs rebelling.
Duncan Smith has become significantly involved in issues of family and social breakdown. He has stated his support for early interventions to reduce and prevent social breakdown. In December 2010, he studied a state-sponsored relationship education programme in Norway, under which couples were forced to "think again" and confront the reality of divorce before formally separating. The policy has been credited with reversing Norway's trend for rising divorce rates and halting the decline of marriage in the country over the past 15 years. Duncan Smith said he was keen to explore ways in which similar approaches could be encouraged in Britain. Officials pointed out that such a programme would be expensive but that an approach could reduce the long-term cost of family breakdown, which has been estimated at up to £100 billion. Duncan Smith said couples in Norway were able to "work through what is going to happen with their children", which has "a very big effect on their thinking". "Many of them think again about what they are going to embark on once they really understand the consequences of their actions subsequently," he said.
Duncan Smith said in February 2011 that it was "absurd and damaging" for ministers not to extol the benefits of marriage for fear of stigmatising those who choose not to marry. Duncan Smith said: "We do a disservice to society if we ignore the evidence which shows that stable families tend to be associated with better outcomes for children. There are few more powerful tools for promoting stability than the institution of marriage." He added that "The financial costs of family breakdown are incredibly high. But what is most painful to see is the human cost – the wasted potential, the anti-social behaviour, and the low self-esteem." In April 2012, he signalled his support for same-sex marriage on the basis that it would promote stability in relationships.
Views on immigration
Duncan Smith has said that tighter immigration controls are vital if Britain is to avoid "losing another generation to dependency and hopelessness". In a speech delivered in Spain he said that only immigrants with "something to offer" should be allowed into the country and that too often foreign workers purporting to be skilled take low-skilled jobs that could be occupied by British school leavers. According to The Daily Telegraph's analysis, the speech contained a warning to David Cameron "that a 'slack' attitude to immigration will result in the Coalition repeating the mistakes made under Labour, when the vast majority of new jobs generated before the recession were taken by immigrants". Duncan Smith believes that some companies are using immigration as "an excuse to import labour to take up posts which could be filled by people already in Britain". He says Britain needs an immigration system that gives the unemployed "a level playing field". "If we do not get this right then we risk leaving more British citizens out of work, and the most vulnerable group who will be the most affected are young people," he said.
Views on social credit
Duncan Smith has called for cuts to Universal Credit to be reversed. Duncan Smith said, “Rolling out a new system, and pulling the money out of it the whole time, is very difficult to do it. It counters the whole purpose of what the welfare reforms are about.”
R (Miller) v. Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union
On 3 November 2016 and in response to the decision of the High Court in R (Miller) v. Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union on whether the UK government was entitled to notify an intention to leave the European Union under Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union without a vote in Parliament, Duncan Smith stated that "it's not the position of the courts to tell parliament or the Government how that process should work. It never has been. Their job is to interpret what comes out of parliament, not to tell parliament how it goes about its functions."
In December 2019, Duncan Smith voted in favour of the Withdrawal Agreement. When the House of Commons debated the agreement at the time, Duncan Smith argued against further scrutiny by the House, stating that Members of the House "had more than 100 hours in committee over the last 3 and a half years ... If there is anything about this arrangement that we have not now debated, thrashed to death, I would love to know what it is." In August 2020, Duncan Smith subsequently said that because of clauses buried in the fine print of the Withdrawal Agreement, it costs too much and denies the UK true independence, urging the UK government to denounce it.
Duncan Smith married Elizabeth "Betsy" Fremantle, daughter of the 5th Baron Cottesloe, in 1982. The couple have four children, and live in a country house belonging to his father-in-law's estate in Swanbourne, Buckinghamshire. He is a Roman Catholic. He has been reported to support both Tottenham Hotspur, where in 2002 he held a season ticket, and Aston Villa.
- His biography on the Conservative Party website and entry in Who's Who originally stated he had studied at the University of Perugia in Italy. In response to the 2002 BBC investigation which found this statement to be untrue, his office stated he had in fact attended the University for Foreigners, a different institution in Perugia, for a year in 1973. He did not complete his course of study, sit exams, or gain any qualifications there.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 September 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Dillon, Jo (29 December 2002). "Seasonal goodwill bypasses beleaguered Iain Duncan Smith". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 6 May 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
"Iain Duncan Smith". BBC News. 18 October 2002. Archived from the original on 19 November 2005. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
Tempest, Matthew (17 July 2001). "Who is Iain Duncan Smith?". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 6 May 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
- Kite, Melissa (20 December 2002). "His mystery letter haunts Tory leader". The Times. Archived from the original on 30 December 2020. Retrieved 14 December 2020.(subscription required)
- Tempest, Matthew. "Duncan Smith's secret samurai past" Archived 5 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian (UK). 3 September 2001.
- "ABCBookWorld". ABCBookWorld. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- H2G2 Archived 29 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. BBC (1 January 1970); retrieved 15 August 2013.
- "Iain Duncan-Smith", Britannica Online entry by Peter Kellner, 20 February 2013.
- "Newsnight reveals inaccuracies in Iain Duncan Smith's CV". BBC Press Office Release. 19 December 2002. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 8 December 2009.
- "No. 46656". The London Gazette (Supplement). 12 August 1975. p. 10257.
- "No. 47257". The London Gazette (Supplement). 27 June 1977. p. 8404.
- "AIM25 – ACLAND, Maj Gen Sir John Hugh Bevil (1928–2006)". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 21 February 2015.
- "The contradictory world of Iain Duncan Smith" Archived 11 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, independent.co.uk, 9 October 2001.
- "No. 48589". The London Gazette (Supplement). 16 April 1981. p. 5769.
- "No. 49412". The London Gazette (Supplement). 11 July 1983. p. 9146.
- "UK General Election results: June 1987". politicsresources.net. 11 August 2011. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- "Election Data 1992". Electoral Calculus. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
- "Politics Resources". Election 1992. Politics Resources. 9 April 1992. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- Blitz, James (26 June 2019). "Team Boris: the four people behind Johnson's bid for power". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 4 June 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- Snowdon 2010, p. 2.
- "View from the grassroots". BBC News. 29 October 2003. Archived from the original on 10 June 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- "Duncan Smith elected Tory leader". BBC News. 13 September 2001. Archived from the original on 8 October 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2010.
- Rupert Cornwell, "Campaign Against Terrorism: Duncan Smith calls for pressure on Iraq"[permanent dead link], The Independent, 30 November 2001.
- "BBC NEWS | VOTE 2002 | LOCAL ELECTIONS". BBC News. Archived from the original on 5 January 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- Davies, Mark (11 October 2002). "Duncan Smith: The Tories are back". Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
- Nelson, Nigel (30 March 2019). "Iain Duncan Smith 'to join gang of Tories set to replace Theresa May as PM'". Mirror. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 11 June 2020.
- "'Unite or die' warns Tory leader". BBC News. 21 February 2003. Archived from the original on 15 May 2006. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- McSmith, Andy; Dillon, Jo (23 February 2003). "Tory MPs line up to deal death blow to IDS". The Independent on Sunday. Archived from the original on 6 October 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- "Tory leader: Back me or get out". BBC News. 9 October 2003. Archived from the original on 24 March 2006. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "BBC NEWS | VOTE 2003". BBC News. Archived from the original on 10 June 2020. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- Tory frontbencher quits post Archived 11 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News 2 May 2003
- Andrew Sparrow and Benedict Brogan, "Aide's email warning of risk to IDS triggered investigation" Archived 23 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine, The Daily Telegraph, 13 October 2003.
- "Tory leader ousted". BBC. 29 October 2003. Archived from the original on 22 August 2017. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- "Howard crowned Tory leader". BBC News. 6 November 2003. Archived from the original on 12 January 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- Hayton, Richard. "Leadership without authority: Iain Duncan Smith as leader of the Conservative Party" (PDF). University of Huddersfield. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 July 2020. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
- "'I hate to kick a man when he's down, but...'". BBC News. 6 November 2003. Archived from the original on 7 September 2007. Retrieved 23 August 2015.
- Jones, George (11 November 2003). "Hague and IDS on panel of 'four wise men'". Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "The CSJ confirms changes to senior team". Centre for Social Justice press release. Archived from the original on 18 July 2006. Retrieved 7 July 2010.
- "Breakdown Britain". The Centre for Social Justice. 14 December 2006. Archived from the original on 7 July 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "Breakthrough Britain". The Centre for Social Justice. Archived from the original on 19 August 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "Iain Duncan Smith". Chingford and Woodford Green News. Archived from the original on 27 September 2012. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
- "MPs deliver anti-Semitism report". BBC News. 7 September 2006. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
- "ConservativeHome's ToryDiary: Key Conservative contributions to yesterday's Iraq debate". Conservativehome.blogs.com. 25 January 2007. Archived from the original on 15 April 2010. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- "Welfare 'trapping' people in poverty says Duncan Smith". BBC News. 27 May 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- Porter, Andrew (29 July 2010). "Conservatives: come off benefits and we'll make work pay". Telegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 2 August 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- "The Work Programme" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 June 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- "Archbishop was wrong on benefits cap, says Duncan Smith". BBC News. 11 March 2013. Archived from the original on 10 November 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "Iain Duncan Smith launches last-ditch appeal over welfare reforms". The Daily Telegraph. 23 January 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- Malik, Shiv (30 September 2013). "Minister looking at making it harder for sick and disabled to claim benefits". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 July 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- "Tripling in foodbank usage sparks Trussell Trust to call for an inquiry". The Trussell Trust. 16 October 2013.
- "Archbishop Justin Welby urges help for UK hungry". BBC News. 7 December 2014. Archived from the original on 7 December 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
- "Incapacity Benefits Deaths of Recipients" (PDF). Department Of Work And Pensions. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2015.
- "Department for work and pensions statistics" (PDF). UK Statistics Authority. Archived (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2013. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- Wintour, Patrick (15 July 2013). "Iain Duncan Smith defends use of statistics over benefits cap". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 18 September 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Portes, Jonathan; Gaffney, Declan (15 April 2013). "Conservative claims about benefits are not just spin, they're making it up". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Porter, Andrew (23 June 2010). "Pensions shake-up could see most people working into their seventies". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 26 June 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010.
- Duncan Smith unveils details of welfare 'contract' Archived 13 November 2010 at the Wayback Machine, BBC
- Ross, Tim (12 November 2011). "Duncan Smith plans new crackdown on lazy benefit claimants". Telegraph.co.uk. Archived from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- "Get a job, Iain Duncan Smith tells parents on the dole". The Daily Telegraph. 13 June 2012. Archived from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- Shiv Malik (30 November 2012). "Sick and disabled braced for enforced work-for-benefits programme". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Iain Duncan Smith rejected offer of Justice secretary to finish welfare reform Archived 6 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved on 15 August 2013.
- Mason, Rowena (1 April 2013). "Iain Duncan Smith: I could live on £53 per week". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 1 April 2013. Retrieved 1 April 2013.
- Iain Duncan Smith calls for wealthy pensioners to hand back benefits Archived 14 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 28 April 2013, retrieved 30 April 2013
- Michele Hanson, I tried to hand back my winter fuel payment Archived 12 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 30 April 2013, retrieved 30 April 2013
- "The moral certainty of Iain Duncan Smith", James Landale, BBC News, 5 September 2013 Archived 2 October 2013 at archive.today
- "Duncan Smith dismisses claim Osborne said he was 'not clever enough'". The Guardian. London. Press Association. 1 October 2013. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- Dugan, Emily (29 May 2014). "Overpaid benefits: Coalition's pursuit turns nasty as debt collectors hound poorest over tax credits". The Independent. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "IDS' emergency jobseeker law sparks civil liberties outrage", Ian Dunt, politics.co.uk Archived 14 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, 19 March 2013 Archived 22 March 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "High Court challenges UK work schemes". BBC News. 4 July 2014. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
- Shiv Malik. "Leaked universal credit memo shows jobcentre staff struggling with rollout". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 16 June 2017. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Ashley Cowburn (19 August 2015). "Welfare office made up quotes from 'happy benefits claimants'". The Times. London. Archived from the original on 19 August 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- Peter Dominiczak (27 August 2015). "Thousands of benefit claimants died after being declared 'fit for work'". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 28 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- Jon Stone (27 August 2015). "Iain Duncan Smith should resign over disability benefit death figures, says Jeremy Corbyn". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 27 August 2015. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- Stone, Jon (6 October 2015). "Iain Duncan Smith tells disabled people to work their way out of poverty". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 7 October 2015. Retrieved 6 October 2015.
- "Iain Duncan Smith quits over planned disability benefit changes". BBC News. Archived from the original on 18 April 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "'A compromise too far': Iain Duncan Smith's resignation letter in full". The Guardian. Guardian. 19 March 2016. Archived from the original on 19 March 2016. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
- Madison, Rowan; Asthana, Anushka (20 March 2016). "Tories in civil war as Duncan Smith attacks austerity programme". The Guardian. London, UK. Archived from the original on 20 March 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2016.
- "Staying in EU 'exposes UK to terror risk', says Iain Duncan Smith". BBC News. 21 February 2016. Archived from the original on 20 September 2017. Retrieved 5 October 2017.
- Perraudin, Frances (26 June 2016). "Iain Duncan Smith backtracks on leave side's £350m NHS claim". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 21 February 2020. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
- "Iain Duncan Smith quits: David Cameron 'puzzled' by resignation". BBC News. 19 March 2016. Archived from the original on 29 January 2019. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- Merrick, Rob (25 June 2019). "Boris Johnson recruits former party leader Iain Duncan Smith to chair his campaign". The Independent. Archived from the original on 8 June 2020. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
- "Tory leadership election: the full results". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 7 June 2020. Retrieved 8 June 2020.
- "No. 62866". The London Gazette (Supplement). 28 December 2019. p. N2.
- James Morris (30 December 2019). "More than 237,000 sign petition calling for Sir Iain Duncan Smith's knighthood to be blocked - AOL". Yahoo News UK. Archived from the original on 1 January 2020. Retrieved 1 January 2020.
- Editor, Lucy Fisher, Defence. "MPs from eight nations voice fears over China". ISSN 0140-0460. Archived from the original on 6 June 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2020.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Graham-Harrison, Emma (5 June 2020). "Global alliance formed to counter China threat amid rising tensions". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 6 June 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
- Bourke, Latika (4 June 2020). "MPs from eight countries form new global coalition to counter China". The Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 9 June 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
- "Uighurs: China bans UK MPs after abuse sanctions". BBC News. 26 March 2021. Archived from the original on 26 March 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
- McSmith, Andy (3 September 2001). "Duncan Smith outrages both sides with Clause 28 switch". Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- Mann, Nyta (16 January 2003). "Section 28 compromise avoids a crisis". BBC News Online. Archived from the original on 27 May 2006. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "Clause 44 — Suitability Of Adopters: 4 Nov 2002: House of Commons debates". TheyWorkForYou. Archived from the original on 4 April 2017. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
- Wintour, Patrick (12 March 2012). "Iain Duncan Smith: early intervention crucial to prevent social breakdown". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 11 November 2014. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- "IDS backs shock courses to stop couples splitting up". The Daily Telegraph. London. 28 December 2010. Archived from the original on 6 October 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- "Couples should be encouraged to marry, says Iain Duncan Smith". The Daily Telegraph. London. 8 February 2011. Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 4 April 2018.
- "Iain Duncan Smith defies Catholic Church to back marriage for gay couples". PinkNews. 28 April 2012. Archived from the original on 29 April 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2012.
- Andrew Porter, Migrants 'take the jobs from young Britons' Archived 27 August 2019 at the Wayback Machine, The Daily Telegraph (London)
- Address by Iain Duncan Smith at the opening session of the FAES campus, fundacionfaes.org; accessed 9 May 2015.
- Archived 13 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian
- "UPDATING: Reaction to High Court ruling on Article 50". Politics Home. London. 3 November 2016. Archived from the original on 13 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 September 2020. Retrieved 3 August 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 August 2020. Retrieved 6 August 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- @MPIainDS (3 August 2020). "Denounce WA" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
- "Iain Duncan Smith". Conservative Party. Archived from the original on 20 January 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- Payne, Stewart (29 July 2006). "Duncan Smiths call time on village life without a pub". The Telegraph.[dead link]
- Damien Gayle (3 July 2015). "Leading Catholics write to Iain Duncan Smith to express fears over welfare cuts". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 4 July 2015. Retrieved 4 July 2015.
- Rich, Tim (19 October 2008). "Tottenham condemned to worst start ever as pressure piles on Juande Ramos". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 23 October 2008. Retrieved 1 August 2010.
- Burt, Jason (22 December 2002). "Spurs' quandary: deciding if home is where the Hart is". The Independent. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
- "Celebrity Villains". BBC Birmingham. 17 January 2008. Archived from the original on 21 October 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2010.