Index of Economic Freedom


The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created in 1995 by conservative think-tank The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations. The creators of the index claim to take an approach inspired by Adam Smith's in The Wealth of Nations, that "basic institutions that protect the liberty of individuals to pursue their own economic interests result in greater prosperity for the larger society".[1][2]

The 2021 Heritage Foundation Index of Economic Freedom overall heatmap

Purpose


The Heritage Foundation website states that "Economic freedom is the fundamental right of every human to control his or her own labor and property. In an economically free society, individuals are free to work, produce, consume, and invest in any way they please. In economically free societies, governments allow labor, capital, and goods to move freely, and refrain from coercion or constraint of liberty beyond the extent necessary to protect and maintain liberty itself."[3] By publishing yearly reports the foundation attempts to highlight where such freedoms do and don't exist.

The Heritage Foundation reports that the top 20% on the index have twice the per capita income of those in the second quintile, and five times that of the bottom 20%.[4] Carl Schramm, who wrote the first chapter of the 2008 Index, states that cities of Medieval Italy and mid-19th century Midwestern American cities all flourished to the degree they possessed economic fluidity and institutional adaptiveness created by economic freedom.[5]

According to Will Wilkinson of the libertarian think tank Cato Institute, studies show that higher economic freedom correlates strongly with higher self-reported happiness.[6] According to economists Tomi Ovaska and Ryo Takashima, economic freedom research suggests "that people unmistakably care about the degree to which the society where they live provides them opportunities and the freedom to undertake new projects, strongly with and make choices based on one's personal preferences."[7]

According to the Cato Institute, higher economic freedom promotes participation and collaboration.[8] Also claimed is that higher economic freedom is extremely significant in preventing wars; according to their calculations, freedom is around 54 times more effective than democracy (as measured by Democracy Score) in diminishing violent conflict.[9]

Ratings


Since the index was created in 1995, the score for world economic freedom has increased, rising 2.6 points up to 2008.[10] In 2011 the score had decreased from the 2008 score of 60.2 to 59.7, which represents an increase of 2.2 points since 1995. The Economic Freedom score improved for 117 countries, the majority of countries included in the index, which were mainly developing and emerging market economies. With the exception of Europe and North America, there were increased levels of freedom recorded in all regions, with the greatest improvement shown in Sub-Saharan Africa. The top five "free" economies identified by the 2011 index were Hong Kong, Singapore, Australia, New Zealand, and Switzerland, each scoring over 80 on the economic freedom grading scale.[11] Since the Index was created in 1995, Hong Kong has been the top performing economy.[11][12]

In 2011, the United States dropped to 9th place behind such countries as Denmark, Canada, and first-place Hong Kong.[11] The Heritage Foundation has pointed to increases in government spending as the reason for the United States' decline, and according to data from the 2011 index, the growth rates of countries with the highest levels of government spending were 4.5 points lower, on average, than countries where government spending was under control.[13] In their "Executive Highlights" of index results, the Heritage Foundation stated that "high levels of government spending in response to the global economic turmoil have not resulted in higher economic growth".[11]

The results from the 2012 index showed an overall decline in global economic freedom; according to The Heritage Foundation, the average score in its ranking was the second lowest of the last ten years.[14] In particular, the U.S. dropped to 10th place in the ranking, and has now fallen three places since 2008, when it was 7th.[15] A report issued by the Foundation stated that government spending was the cause of the decline, and had "not only failed to arrest the economic crisis, but also - in many countries - seems to be prolonging it".[16] According to the report, activity in the private sector is threatened by the greater government spending, which has increased public debt and led to more bureaucracy.[14]

Countries that shared the same rank received a tie score.

Reception


According to the Freedom House, "there is a high and statistically significant correlation between the level of political freedom as measured by Freedom House and economic freedom as measured by the Wall Street Journal/Heritage Foundation survey."[17] The Millennium Challenge Account, a U.S. government foreign aid program, has used the Trade freedom indicator in determining which countries will receive their performance-based compacts.[18]

Critics such as Jeffrey Sachs have contested the Index's assumption that economic openness necessarily leads to better growth. In his book The End of Poverty, Sachs graphed countries' ratings on the index against GDP per capita growth between 1995 and 2003, claiming to demonstrate no correlation between a country's rating and its rate of economic growth. Sachs pointed out, as examples, that countries with good ratings such as Switzerland and Uruguay had sluggish economic performances, others, like China, with poorer rating had very strong economic growth.[19]

The UAE questioned the rating of their country's economic freedom in 2008, comparing its middling rating with the high rating they had received from other indicators such as Transparency International and Moody's. They also argued that the report is "unreliable", because its methodology had changed twice in the last two years.[20]

Stefan Karlsson of the Ludwig von Mises Institute challenged the usefulness of the index due to the fuzziness of many of the categories used to determine freedom.[21] John Miller roundly criticizes the "Index", writing in Dollars & Sense, "In the hands of the Wall Street Journal and the Heritage Foundation, Washington's foremost right-wing think tank, however, an economic freedom index merely measures corporate and entrepreneurial freedom from accountability. Upon examination, the index turns out to be a poor barometer of either freedom more broadly construed or of prosperity."[22] According to Left Business Observer, growth in Index accounts for 10% of the variation in the growth of GDP.[23]

Methodology


The ranking scores aspects of economic freedom between 0 and 100, with 0 meaning "no economic freedom" and 100 meaning "total economic freedom". There are twelve aspects divided into four categories.[24]

Rule of law

Property rights

Degree of a country's legal protection of private property rights and degree of enforcement of those laws. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. physical property rights
  2. intellectual property rights
  3. strength of investor protection
  4. risk of expropriation
  5. quality of land administration
Judicial effectiveness

Degree of the judiciary's efficiency and fairness, especially dealing with property laws. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. judicial independence
  2. quality of the judicial process
  3. likelihood of obtaining favorable judicial decisions
Government integrity

Analyzes how prevalent are forms of political corruption and practices such as bribery, extortion, nepotism, cronyism, patronage, embezzlement, and graft. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. public trust in politicians
  2. irregular payments and bribes
  3. transparency of government policymaking
  4. absence of corruption
  5. perceptions of corruption
  6. governmental and civil service transparency

Government size

Tax burden

Analyzes marginal tax rates on personal and corporate income and the overall taxation level (including direct and indirect taxes imposed by all levels of government) as a percentage of the GDP. Its sub-factors are:

  1. top marginal tax rate on individual income
  2. top marginal tax rate on corporate income
  3. total tax burden as a percentage of GDP
Government spending

Quantifies the burden of government expenditures, including consumption by the state and all transfer payments related to various entitlement programs. The ideal level varies from country to country, but zero expenditure is used as a benchmark.

Fiscal health

Analyzes how well a country manages its budget by quantifying the growing debt and deficit. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. average deficits as a percentage of GDP for the most recent three years (80 percent of score)
  2. debt as a percentage of GDP (20 percent of score)

Regulatory efficiency

Business freedom

Analyzes the cost, time and freedom to open, operate and close a business, taking into consideration factors like electricity. It is divided into thirteen sub-factors:

  1. starting a business - procedures (number);
  2. starting a business - time (days);
  3. starting a business - cost (% of income per capita);
  4. starting a business - minimum capital (% of income per capita);
  5. obtaining a license - procedures (number);
  6. obtaining a license - time (days);
  7. obtaining a license - cost (% of income per capita);
  8. closing a business - time (years);
  9. closing a business - cost (% of estate);
  10. closing a business - recovery rate (cents on the dollar);
  11. getting electricity - procedures (number);
  12. getting electricity - time (days); and
  13. getting electricity - cost (% of income per capita).
Labor freedom

Quantifies the intrusiveness of labor rights such as minimum wage, laws inhibiting layoffs, severance requirements, and measurable regulatory restraints on hiring and hours worked, plus the labor force participation rate as an indicative measure of employment opportunities in the labor market. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. ratio of minimum wage to the average value added per worker
  2. hindrance to hiring additional workers
  3. rigidity of hours
  4. difficulty of firing redundant employees
  5. legally mandated notice period
  6. mandatory severance pay
  7. labor force participation rate
Monetary freedom

Analyzes how stable are prices and how much microeconomy intervenes. It is divided into the following sub-factors:

  1. weighted average inflation rate for the most recent three years
  2. price controls

Market openness

Trade freedom

Quantifies the extent to which tariff and nontariff barriers affect imports and exports of goods and services into and out of the country. Its sub-factors are:

  1. trade-weighted average tariff rate
  2. nontariff barriers (NTBs)
Investment freedom

Analyzes how free or constrained is the flow of investment capital of individuals and firms.

Financial freedom

Indicates banking efficiency as well as how independent the government is from the financial sector. This aspect looks at five broad areas:

  1. extent of government regulation of financial services
  2. degree of state intervention in banks and other financial firms through direct and indirect ownership
  3. government influence on the allocation of credit
  4. extent of financial and capital market development
  5. openness to foreign competition

Previous Methodology

The Index's 2008 definition of economic freedom is "the highest form of economic freedom provides an absolute right of property ownership, fully realized freedoms of movement for labor, capital, and goods, and an absolute absence of coercion or constraint of economic liberty beyond the extent necessary for citizens to protect and maintain liberty itself."[25]

The index scores nations on ten factors of economic freedom, separated into four categories, using statistics from organizations like the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, Economist Intelligence Unit and Transparency International. In each factor, countries are scored 0 to 100, with 0 being the least free and 100 the most free. A score of 100 signifies an economic environment or set of policies that is most conducive to economic freedom.[25] The methodology has shifted and changed as new data and measurements have become available, especially in the area of Labor Freedom, which was given its own indicator spot in 2007.[2] The following list explains what each factor currently assesses and groups them according to their respective category:

Rule of Law
Limited Government
  • Fiscal Freedom: How free is a country from tax burden. It comprises three quantitative measures: top marginal tax rate of both individual (1) and corporate (2) income, and total tax burden as a percentage of GDP (3).
  • Government Size/Spending: Governments' expenditures as a percentage of GDP, including consumption and transfers. The higher the percentual spending, the lower the score.
Regulatory Efficiency
  • Business Freedom: A country's freedom from the burden of regulations on starting, operating, and closing business, given factors such as time, cost and number of procedures, as well as the efficiency of government in the regulatory process.
  • Labor Freedom: How free is a country from legal regulation on the labor market, including those relating to minimum wages, hiring and firing, hours of work and severance requirements.
  • Monetary Freedom: How free from microeconomic intervention and price instability is a country, basing on an equation considering the weighted average inflation rate in the last three years and price controls.
Open Markets
  • Trade Freedom: Freedom from sizeable numbers and burdens of tariffs and non-tariff barriers to imports and exports of a country.
  • Investment Freedom: Freedom from restrictions on the movement and use of investment capital, regardless of activity, within and across the country's borders.
  • Financial Freedom: A country's independence from government control and interference in the financial sector, including banks. It considers government ownership of financial firms, extent of financial and capital market development, government influence on the allocation of credit and openness to foreign competition.

Rankings


2021 Index

As of 2021, Singapore’s economic freedom score is 89.7, making it the world’s freest economy in the Index. Singapore is ranked 1st among 40 countries in the Asia-Pacific region, and its overall score is well above the regional and world averages.

Key: ██ Free (80–100) ██ Mostly Free (70–79.9) ██ Moderately Free (65–69.9) ██ Moderately Unfree (60–64.9) ██ Mostly Unfree (55–59.9) ██ Mostly Unfree (50–54.9) ██ Repressed (0–49.9)

Country[26] Rank Score Change
 Singapore 189.7 0.3
 New Zealand 283.9 0.2
 Australia 382.4 0.2
  Switzerland 481.9 0.1
 Ireland 581.4 0.5
 Taiwan 678.6 1.5
 United Kingdom 778.4 0.9
 Estonia 878.2 0.5
 Canada 977.9 0.3
 Denmark 1077.8 0.5
 Iceland 1177.4 0.3
 Georgia 1277.2 0.1
 Mauritius 1377.0 2.1
 United Arab Emirates 1476.9 0.7
 Lithuania 1576.9 0.2
 Netherlands 1676.8 0.2
 Finland 1776.1 0.4
 Luxembourg 1876.0 0.2
 Chile 1975.2 1.6
 United States 2074.8 1.8
 Sweden 2174.7 0.2
 Malaysia 2274.4 0.3
 Japan 2374.1 0.8
 South Korea 2474.0 0.0
 Austria 2573.9 0.6
 Israel 2673.8 0.2
 Czech Republic 2773.8 1.0
 Norway 2873.4 0.0
 Germany 2972.5 1.0
 Latvia 3072.3 0.4
 Qatar 3172.0 0.3
 Armenia 3271.9 1.3
 Cyprus 3371.4 1.3
 Kazakhstan 3471.1 1.5
 Bulgaria 3570.4 0.2
 Malta 3670.2 0.7
 Belgium 3770.1 1.2
 Azerbaijan 3870.1 0.8
 Spain 3969.9 3.0
 Bahrain 4069.9 3.6
 Poland 4169.7 0.6
 Thailand 4269.7 0.3
 Romania 4369.5 0.2
 Uruguay 4469.3 0.2
 Jamaica 4569.0 0.5
 North Macedonia 4668.6 0.9
 Rwanda 4768.3 2.6
 Slovenia 4868.3 0.5
 Colombia 4968.1 1.1
 Peru 5067.7 0.2
 Botswana 5167.6 2.0
 Portugal 5267.5 0.5
 Saint Lucia 5367.5 0.7
 Serbia 5467.2 1.2
 Hungary 5567.2 0.8
 Indonesia 5666.9 0.3
 Brunei Darussalam 5766.6 0.0
 Kosovo 5866.5 0.9
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5966.3 0.5
 Seychelles 6066.3 2.0
 Slovakia 6166.3 0.5
 Panama 6266.2 1.0
 Saudi Arabia 6366.0 3.6
 France 6465.7 0.3
 Mexico 6565.5 0.5
 Albania 6665.2 1.7
 Barbados 6765.0 3.6
 Italy 6864.9 1.1
 Jordan 6964.6 1.4
 The Bahamas 7064.4 0.1
 Oman 7164.6 1.0
 Costa Rica 7264.2 1.6
 Philippines 7364.1 0.4
 Kuwait 7464.1 0.9
 Guatemala 7564.0 0.0
 Turkey 7664.0 0.4
 Cabo Verde 7763.8 0.2
 Kyrgyzstan 7863.7 0.8
 Croatia 7963.6 1.4
 Montenegro 8063.4 1.9
 Morocco 8163.3 0.0
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 8262.9 0.3
 Namibia 8362.6 1.7
 Paraguay 8462.6 0.4
 Moldova 8562.5 0.5
 Mongolia 8662.4 6.5
 Fiji 8762.2 1.2
 Dominican Republic 8862.1 1.2
 Samoa 8961.9 0.2
 Vietnam 9061.7 2.9
 Ivory Coast 9161.7 2.0
 Russia 9261.5 0.5
 Tanzania 9361.3 0.4
 El Salvador 9461.0 0.6
 Belarus 9561.0 0.7
 Greece 9660.9 1.0
 Vanuatu 9760.5 0.2
 Honduras 9859.8 1.3
 South Africa 9959.7 0.9
 Benin 10059.6 4.4
 Ghana 10159.2 0.2
 Trinidad and Tobago 10259.0 0.7
 Papua New Guinea 10358.9 0.5
 The Gambia 10458.8 2.5
 Nigeria 10558.7 1.5
 Uganda 10658.6 0.9
 China 10758.4 1.1
 Uzbekistan 10858.3 1.1
 Bhutan 10958.3 3.8
 Gabon 11058.1 1.4
 Senegal 11158.0 0.0
 Madagascar 11257.7 2.8
 Togo 11357.5 3.4
 Belize 11457.5 0.1
 Tonga 11557.5 1.3
 Guyana 11657.4 1.2
 Niger 11757.3 2.6
 Cambodia 11857.3 0.0
 Tunisia 11956.6 0.8
 Bangladesh 12056.5 0.1
 India 12156.5 0.0
 Solomon Islands 12256.5 3.6
 Guinea 12356.5 0.0
 Burkina Faso 12456.5 0.2
 Nicaragua 12556.3 0.9
 Djibouti 12656.2 3.3
 Ukraine 12756.2 1.3
 Mauritania 12856.1 0.8
 São Tomé and Príncipe 12955.9 0.3
 Egypt 13055.7 1.7
 Sri Lanka 13155.7 1.7
 Comoros 13255.7 2.0
 Mali 13355.6 0.3
 Tajikistan 13455.2 3.0
 Myanmar 13555.2 1.2
 Maldives 13655.2 1.3
 Eswatini 13755.1 0.2
 Kenya 13854.9 0.4
 Guinea-Bissau 13954.9 1.6
 Angola 14054.2 2.0
 Laos 14153.9 1.6
 Lesotho 14253.5 1.0
 Brazil 14353.4 0.3
 Cameroon 14453.4 0.2
 Malawi 14553.0 0.2
 Afghanistan 14653.0 1.7
 Dominica 14753.0 7.8
 Argentina 14852.7 0.4
 Ecuador 14952.4 1.1
 Sierra Leone 15051.7 3.7
 Ethiopia 15151.7 1.9
 Pakistan 15251.7 3.1
 Mozambique 15351.6 1.1
 Lebanon 15451.4 0.3
 Haiti 15550.8 1.5
 Republic of the Congo 15650.7 8.9
   Nepal 15750.7 3.5
 Chad 15850.4 0.2
 Zambia 15950.4 3.1
 Micronesia 16050.4 1.6
 Burundi 16149.9 0.9
 Algeria 16249.7 2.8
 Equatorial Guinea 16349.2 0.9
 Liberia 16449.2 0.2
 Congo-Kinshasa 16549.0 0.5
 Central African Republic 16648.8 1.9
 Turkmenistan 16747.4 0.9
 Iran 16847.2 2.0
 Suriname 16946.4 3.1
 Timor-Leste 17044.7 1.2
 Kiribati 17144.4 0.8
 Bolivia 17242.7 0.1
 Eritrea 17342.3 3.8
 Zimbabwe 17439.5 3.6
 Sudan 17539.1 5.9
 Cuba 17628.1 1.2
 Venezuela 17724.7 0.5
 North Korea 1785.2 1.0
Not ranked

Previous Rankings

Key: ██ Free (80–100) ██ Mostly Free (70.0–79.9) ██ Moderately Free (60.0–69.9) ██ Mostly Unfree (50.0–59.9) ██ Repressed (0–49.9)

  2017[27] 2016[28] 2015[29] 2014[30]
Country Rank Score Change in Yearly Score from 2016 Rank Score Change in Yearly Score from 2015 Rank Score Change in Yearly Score from 2014 Rank Score Change in Yearly Score from 2013
 Hong Kong 189.8 1.2 188.6 -1.0 189.6 -0.5 190.1 0.8
 Singapore 288.6 1.2 287.8 -1.6 289.4 -0.5 289.4 0.0
 New Zealand 383.7 2.1 381.6 -0.5 382.1 0.9 581.2 -0.2
  Switzerland 481.5 0.5 481 0.5 580.5 -1.1 481.6 0.6
 Australia 581 0.7 580.3 -1.1 481.4 -0.6 382 -0.6
 Estonia 679.1 1.9 977.2 0.4 876.8 0.9 1175.9 0.6
 Canada 778.5 0.5 678 -1.1 679.1 -1.1 680.2 0.8
 United Arab Emirates 876.9 4.5 2572.4 1 2871.4 0.3 2871.1 1.8
 Ireland 976.7 -0.6 877.3 0.7 976.6 0.4 976.2 0.5
 Chile 1076.5 -1.2 777.7 -0.8 778.5 -0.2 778.7 -0.3
 Taiwan 1176.5 1.8 1474.7 -0.4 1475.1 1.2 1773.9 1.2
 United Kingdom 1276.4 0 1076.4 0.6 1375.8 0.9 1474.9 0.1
 Georgia 1376 3.0 2273 0.4 2272.6 0.4 2172.2 2.8
 Luxembourg 1475.9 2.7 2173.2 -1 1674.2 0 1574.2 -0.3
 Netherlands 1575.8 2.1 1773.7 -0.5 1574.2 0.7 1773.5 0.2
 Lithuania 1675.8 0.6 1375.2 0.5 1574.7 1.7 2173 0.9
 United States 1775.1 -0.3 1175.4 -0.8 1276.2 0.7 1275.5 -0.5
 Denmark 1875.1 -0.2 1275.3 -1.0 1176.3 0.2 1076.1 0
 Sweden 1974.9 2.2 2372.7 -0.4 2073.1 0.2 1872.9 1.2
 Latvia 2074.8 5.1 3769.7 1 4268.7 2.2 5566.5 1.3
 Mauritius 2174.7 0 1574.7 -1.7 1076.4 -0.1 876.5 -0.4
 Iceland 2274.4 2.4 2672 -0.4 2372.4 0.3 2372.1 1.2
 South Korea 2374.3 2.8 2971.5 0.3 3171.2 0.9 3470.3 0.4
 Finland 2474.0 0.6 1973.4 0 1973.4 -0.6 1674 1.7
 Norway 2574 2.2 2771.8 0.9 3270.9 0.4 3170.5 1.7
 Germany 2673.8 0 1673.8 0.4 1873.4 0.6 1972.8 1.8
 Malaysia 2773.8 3 3170.8 1.2 3769.6 3.5 5666.1 -0.3
 Czech Republic 2873.3 0.8 2472.5 0.3 2672.2 1.3 2970.9 1
 Qatar 2973.1 2.3 3270.8 -0.4 3071.2 -0.1 2771.3 0
 Austria 3072.3 1.1 3071.2 -1.2 2472.4 0.6 2571.8 1.5
 North Macedonia 3170.7 3.6 5367.1 -1.5 4368.6 0.4 4368.2 -0.3
 Macau 3270.7 0.4 3470.3 -1 2971.3 -0.4 2671.7 -0.1
 Armenia 3370.3 3.2 5267.1 -1.8 4168.9 -0.5 3869.4 0.6
 Botswana 3471.1 -2.2 3669.8 -2.2 2772 1.4 3070.6 1
 Brunei 3569.8 0.9 3968.9 -0.1 4069-
 Israel 3669.7 -0.8 3370.5 2.1 4468.4 1.5 5166.9 -0.9
 Colombia 3769.7 -2 2871.7 1 3470.7 1.1 3769.6 1.6
 Uruguay 3869.7 1.1 4368.6 -0.7 3869.3 -0.4 3669.7 -0.2
 Romania 3969.7 3.1 5766.6 1.1 6265.5 0.4 5965.1 0.7
 Japan 4069.6 -3.7 2073.3 0.9 2572.4 0.6 2471.8 0.2
 Jamaica 4169.5 1.8 4867.7 1 5666.7 -0.1 5266.8 1.7
 Kazakhstan 4269 5.7 6963.3 -0.4 6763.7 0.7 6863 -0.6
 Peru 4368.9 1.2 4767.7 0.3 4767.4 -0.8 4468.2 -0.5
 Bahrain 4468.5 -4.9 1873.4 -1.7 1375.1 -0.4 1275.5 0.3
 Poland 4568.3 -0.3 4268.6 1.6 5067 1 5766 1.8
 Kosovo 4667.9
 Bulgaria 4767.9 1.1 5566.8 1.1 6165.7 0.7 6065 0.3
 Cyprus 4867.9 0 4567.9 0.3 4667.6 -1.4 4169 -2.8
 Belgium 4967.8 -1 4068.8 -1.1 3569.9 0.7 4069.2 0.2
 Malta 5067.7 1.2 5866.5 0.1 5866.4 -1.1 4767.5 0.5
 Rwanda 5167.6 2.8 6564.8 0.1 6564.7 0.6 6364.1 -0.8
 Vanuatu 5267.4 6.3 8461.1 1.6 9359.5 2.9 10956.6 0
 Jordan 5366.7 -2.6 3869.3 0.1 3969.2 -1.2 3370.4 0.5
 Panama 5466.3 2.2 6864.1 0.7 7163.4 0.9 7162.5 -2.7
 Thailand 5566.2 3.8 7562.4 -0.9 7263.3 -0.8 6164.1 -0.8
 Hungary 5665.8 -1.0 5466.8 -0.2 5167 -0.3 4867.3 0.2
 Slovakia 5765.7 -1.5 5067.2 0.8 5766.4 -2.3 4268.7 1.7
 Philippines 5865.6 3.4 7662.2 2.1 8960.1 1.9 9758.2 1.1
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5965.2 -2.8 4468 1 5267 0.3 5466.7 0.2
 Turkey 6065.2 2 7063.2 -1.7 6464.9 2 6962.9 0.4
 Kuwait 6165.1 2.6 7462.5 0.2 7662.3 -0.8 6663.1 0.6
 Saint Lucia 6265 -5.2 3570.2 -0.5 3370.7 0.3 3270.4 -0.9
 Costa Rica 6365 -2.2 5167.2 0.3 5366.9 -0.1 4967 -1
 Saudi Arabia 6464.4 2.3 7762.1 -0.1 7762.2 1.6 8260.6 -1.9
 Albania 6564.4 -1.3 6365.7 -1.2 5466.9 1.7 5865.2 0.1
 El Salvador 6664.1 -1.6 6265.7 -0.5 5966.2 -0.5 5366.7 -2
 Dominica 6763.7 -2.4 6166.1 0.9 6365.2 1.3 6463.9 2.3
 Azerbaijan 6863.6 2.6 8561 -0.3 8161.3 1.6 8859.7 0.8
 Spain 6963.6 -4.0 4967.6 0.4 4967.2 -0.8 4668 -1.1
 Mexico 7063.6 -2.8 5966.4 -0.4 5566.8 -0.2 5067 1.7
 Fiji 7163.4 4.4 9859 0.3 9958.7 1.5 10557.2 -0.1
 France 7263.3 0.8 7362.5 -1 7063.5 -0.6 6264.1 0.9
 Tonga 7363 3.7 9559.3 1.1 10458.2 2.2 11256 -1
 Guatemala 7463 2.6 8760.4 -0.8 8361.2 1.2 8560 -0.9
 Ivory Coast 7563.0 4.5 10358.5 0.8 10757.7 3.6 12654.1 -0.2
 Dominican Republic 7662.9 1.9 8661 -0.3 8061.3 1.6 8759.7 -0.5
 Portugal 7762.6 -2.7 6465.3 1.8 6963.5 0.4 6763.1 0.1
 Namibia 7862.5 2.9 9359.6 0.2 9459.4 -0.9 8460.3 -1.6
 Italy 7962.5 0.8 8061.7 0.8 8660.9 0.3 8360.6 1.8
 Paraguay 8062.4 1.3 8361.1 -0.9 7862 0.9 8061.1 -0.7
 South Africa 8162.3 -0.3 7262.6 0.1 7562.5 0.7 7461.8 -0.9
 Oman 8262.1 -4.6 5666.7 -0.7 4867.4 -0.7 4568.1 0.2
 Montenegro 8362 -2.7 6664.7 1.1 6863.6 1 7062.6 0.1
 Indonesia 8461.9 3.8 10558.1 -0.4 10058.5 1.6 10856.9 0.5
 Seychelles 8561.8 4.3 11457.5 1.3 11756.2 1.3 12454.9 1.9
 Morocco 8661.5 1.4 8960.1 1.8 10358.3 -1.3 9059.6 -0.6
 Trinidad and Tobago 8761.2 -2.9 6764.1 1.4 7362.7 0.4 7262.3 -2.1
 Eswatini 8861.1 1.2 9159.9 -1.3 8261.2 4 10457.2 0
 Kyrgyzstan 8961.1 -0.2 8261.3 0.2 8561.1 1.5 8959.6 -0.6
 Bahamas 9061.1 -7.6 4168.7 -1.1 3669.8 -0.3 3570.1 2.1
 Uganda 9160.9 1.2 9259.7 -0.2 9159.9 -1.2 7961.1 -0.8
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 9260.2 1.2 9759 0.6 10158.4 1.1 10357.3 0
 Burkina Faso 9359.6 1 10258.6 -0.3 9858.9 -1 8659.9 -0.7
 Cambodia 9459.5 2 11057.5 0.1 10857.4 -1.1 9558.5 0.9
 Croatia 9559.4 -2.1 8161.5 1.1 8760.4 -0.9 7861.3 0.4
 Benin 9659.2 0.4 9958.8 1.7 11357.1 -0.5 10157.6 1.9
 Slovenia 9759.2 -1.1 8860.3 -2.4 7462.7 1 7661.7 -1.2
 Nicaragua 9859.2 1.6 10857.6 -0.8 10258.4 1.8 11056.6 -1.3
 Serbia 9958.9 -1.1 9060 0.6 9559.4 0.8 9458.6 0.6
 Honduras 10058.8 1.4 11657.4 0.3 11257.1 -1.3 9658.4 -0.4
 Belize 10158.6 1.8 11756.8 0.1 11556.7 -0.6 10257.3 -4.6
 Mali 10258.6 2.2 11956.4 0.9 12255.5 -0.9 11156.4 0.6
 Gabon 10358.6 0.3 10458.3 0.5 10557.8 0 9957.8 1.4
 Belarus 10458.6 8.8 15349.8 -0.3 15050.1 2.1 15448 -1
 Tanzania 10558.6 1.1 10957.5 -0.3 10657.8 -0.1 9857.9 0.9
 Guyana 10658.5 3 12355.5 -0.2 12155.7 1.9 12953.8 2.5
 Bhutan 10758.4 1 11557.4 0.7 11656.7 1.7 12255 -1.6
 Samoa 10858.4 -3.5 7861.9 0.8 8461.1 4 10657.1 -3.4
 Tajikistan 10958.2 5.5 14052.7 0.7 13952 -1.4 13153.4 0
 Moldova 11058 0.5 11157.5 0.2 11057.3 1.8 11555.5 1.1
 China 11157.4 4.7 13952.7 0.2 13752.5 0.6 13651.9 0.7
 Sri Lanka 11257.4 -1.2 10158.6 -1.4 9060 -0.7 8160.7 2.4
 Madagascar 11357.4 -4.3 7961.7 0 7961.7 -0.3 7362 -0.4
 Russia 11457.1 5 14352.1 0.2 14051.9 0.8 13951.1 0.6
 Nigeria 11557.1 1.5 12055.6 1.3 12954.3 -0.8 12055.1 -1.2
 Cape Verde 11656.9 -9.5 6066.4 0.3 6066.1 2.4 6563.7 0.2
 Democratic Republic of the Congo 11756.4 13.7 17042.7 -1 16943.7 0.2 16743.5 -0.3
 Ghana 11856.2 -6.8 7163 -1.2 6664.2 2.9 7761.3 0.6
 Guinea-Bissau 11956.1 4.1 14552 0.7 14351.3 0.2 13851.1 1
 Senegal 12055.9 -1.9 10657.8 2.4 12555.4 -0.1 11655.5 0.1
 Comoros 12155.8 3.7 14252.1 0.7 14251.4 3.9 15747.5 1.8
 Zambia 12255.8 -2.9 10058.7 -1.7 8860.4 1.7 9358.7 0.4
 Tunisia 12355.7 -2.0 10757.7 0.4 10957.3 0.3 10757 -1.6
 São Tomé and Príncipe 12455.4 2.1 13653.3 4.5 15748.8 0.8 15348 -2.2
   Nepal 12555.1 3.8 15251.3 1.2 14950.1 -0.3 14150.4 0.2
 Solomon Islands 12655 8 15947 0.8 16546.2 1.2 16545 -1.2
 Greece 12755 1 13054 -1.7 11955.7 0.3 11755.4 0
 Bangladesh 12855 1.1 13153.9 -0.2 13154.1 1.5 13252.6 -0.6
 Mongolia 12954.8 -4.4 9659.2 0.3 9758.9 -2.8 7561.7 0.2
 Barbados 13054.5 -13.4 4667.9 -0.4 4568.3 -1 3969.3 0.3
 Mauritania 13154.4 1.1 13553.3 0.1 13453.2 0.9 13452.3 -0.7
 Federated States of Micronesia 13254.1 4.5 15449.6 -0.2 15349.8 -0.3 14350.1 -0.6
 Laos 13354 2.6 15051.4 0.2 14451.2 1.1 14450.1 0.1
 Lesotho 13453.9 4.3 15549.6 0.1 15449.5 2.4 15547.9 1.3
 Kenya 13553.5 -2.1 12255.6 -1.5 11157.1 1.2 11455.9 -1.6
 Gambia 13653.4 -4.1 11357.5 -2 9259.5 0.7 9258.8 0
 Lebanon 13753.3 -6.0 9459.3 -0.1 9659.4 -0.1 9159.5 -0.6
 Togo 13853.2 0.2 13853 3.1 15249.9 1.1 15048.8 0.5
 Burundi 13953.2 -0.5 13253.7 2.3 14151.4 2.4 14849 0.9
 Brazil 14052.9 -3.7 11856.6 -0.3 11456.9 -0.8 10057.7 -0.2
 Pakistan 14152.8 -2.8 12155.6 0.4 12655.2 0.1 12155.1 0.4
 Ethiopia 14252.7 1.2 14951.5 1.5 15150 0.6 14649.4 -2.6
 India 14352.6 -2 12854.6 -1.1 12055.7 0.5 11955.2 0.6
 Egypt 14452.6 -2.6 12455.2 2.3 13552.9 -1.9 12554.8 -3.1
 Sierra Leone 14552.6 0.9 14751.7 1.2 14850.5 2.2 15148.3 -0.8
 Myanmar 14652.5 5.6 16146.9 0.4 16246.5 7.3 17239.2 0.5
 Vietnam 14752.4 0.7 14851.7 0.9 14750.8 -0.2 14051 -0.3
 Uzbekistan 14852.3 5.3 16047 0.5 16346.5 0.5 16246 0.2
 Malawi 14952.9 -1.9 12654.8 -0.6 12455.4 0.1 11855.3 -1.1
 Cameroon 15051.8 -0.1 14651.9 -0.7 13652.6 0.3 13352.3 0.5
 Central African Republic 15151.8 5.9 16645.9 -0.8 16146.7 -3.7 14250.4 0.1
 Papua New Guinea 15250.9 -2.2 13753.1 -0.8 13253.9 0.3 13053.6 -0.2
 Kiribati 15350.9 4.5 16446.4 0.1 16446.3 0.4 16345.9 -1
 Niger 15450.8 -3.8 12754.6 -0.5 12755.1 1.2 12853.9 -0.4
 Iran 15550.5 8.7 17141.8 1.5 17340.3 -2.9 16843.2 0.9
 Argentina 15650.4 6.3 16944.1 -0.5 16644.6 -2.1 16046.7 -1.3
 Maldives 15750.3 -3.1 13453.4 2.4 14551 2 14949 -0.2
 Mozambique 15849.9 -4.9 12554.8 -0.2 12855 0 12355 -2.1
 Haiti 15949.6 -1.7 15151.3 2.4 15648.9 0.8 15248.1 -2.6
 Ecuador 16049.3 0.1 15649.2 1.2 15948 1.1 15946.9 -1.4
 Liberia 16149.1 -3.6 14152.7 0.3 13852.4 3.1 14749.3 0.7
 Chad 16249 3.1 16545.9 1.4 16744.5 -0.7 16445.2 0.4
 Afghanistan 16348.9
 Angola 16548.5 0.6 15847.9 0.2 16047.7 0.4 15847.3 0.6
 Ukraine 16648.1 1.2 16246.9 -2.4 15549.3 3 16146.3 0.2
 Suriname 16748 -6.2 12954.2 0 13054.2 2.2 13552 -0.6
 Bolivia 16847.7 0.9 16346.8 -1.6 15848.4 0.5 15647.9 -2.3
 Guinea 16947.6 -4.5 14452.1 -1.4 13353.5 2.3 13751.2 0.4
 Turkmenistan 17047.4 6 17241.4 -0.8 17142.2 -0.4 16942.6 -1.2
 Djibouti 17146.7 -10.8 11257.5 1.6 11855.9 2 12753.9 0
 Algeria 17246.5 -2.4 15748.9 -1.9 14650.8 1.2 14549.6 -1.4
 Timor-Leste 17346.3 0.8 16745.5 2.3 17043.2 -0.5 16643.7 0.4
 Equatorial Guinea 17445 4.6 17340.4 -4 16844.4 2.1 17042.3 -0.5
 Zimbabwe 17544 6.4 17537.6 2.1 17635.5 6.9 17528.6 2.3
 Eritrea 17642.2 3.3 17438.9 0.4 17438.5 2.2 17336.3 0.1
 Republic of the Congo 17740 -5 16845 4.4 17240.6 1 17139.6 -1.5
 Cuba 17833.9 4.3 17729.6 0.9 17728.7 0.2 17628.5 0.2
 Venezuela 17927 -7.3 17634.3 -2 17536.3 0.2 17436.1 -2
 North Korea 1804.9 3.6 1781.3 0.3 1781 -0.5 1771.5 0.5
 Yemen 13353.7 -1.8 12355.5 -0.4 11355.9

2020 Index in full


Key: ██ Free (80–100) ██ Mostly Free (70.0–79.9) ██ Moderately Free (60.0–69.9) ██ Mostly Unfree (50.0–59.9) ██ Repressed (0–49.9)

Country Name 2020 Score Property Rights Judicial Effectiveness Government Integrity Tax Burden Gov't Spending Fiscal Health Business Freedom Labor Freedom Monetary Freedom Trade Freedom Investment Freedom Financial Freedom
Afghanistan 54.7 48.3 30.0 24.8 91.4 79.2 99.9 54.7 61.6 81 66.0 10 10
Albania 66.9 57.1 33.0 38.8 85.9 74.6 86.3 65.7 52.1 81.2 88.4 70 70
Algeria 46.9 37.9 35.0 28.3 75.4 52.6 17.3 63.0 50.5 76.2 66.2 30 30
Angola 52.2 36.9 14.3 15.1 87.3 85.7 71.9 57.7 61.1 59.6 66.2 30 40
Argentina 53.1 50.5 47.0 49.7 69.6 50.7 24.7 60.2 46.5 53.7 69.2 55 60
Armenia 70.6 60.7 54.1 43.4 84.9 80.6 68.8 81.0 72.5 76.0 80.6 75 70
Australia 82.6 82.8 86.1 89.3 63.0 61.6 91.8 87.8 84.0 86.2 88.2 80 90
Austria 73.3 87.3 73.2 84.0 51.3 27.2 87.9 73.0 68.3 81.0 86.4 90 70
Azerbaijan 69.3 67.1 53.9 38.7 88.0 63.0 99.2 80.8 66.2 69.8 74.6 70 60
Bahamas 64.5 54.9 46.4 46.0 96.8 87.4 69.2 69.0 70.0 76.3 47.8 50 60
Bahrain 66.3 70.6 48.4 51.0 99.4 66.1 2.6 70.5 71.1 81.1 79.4 75 80
Bangladesh 56.4 41.0 36.1 26.6 72.7 94.3 76.8 52.3 68.4 70.0 63.6 45 30
Barbados 61.4 56.6 36.1 44.0 73.6 69.2 63.1 69.4 60.0 77.9 56.6 70 60
Belarus 61.7 63.2 48.4 37.4 88.8 54.1 95.4 76.4 74.8 69.8 82.0 30 20
Belgium 68.9 84.5 62.5 80.2 46.7 17.2 77.0 75.2 61.1 80.5 86.4 85 70
Belize 57.4 44.4 46.4 33.5 79.5 66.3 53.9 60.9 54.3 80.4 64.2 55 50
Benin 55.2 41.3 36.4 29.6 69.0 84.2 46.6 58.0 53.7 84.3 49.4 60 50
Bhutan 62.1 69.9 46.4 51.2 82.9 71.1 74.8 68.2 79.4 71.6 79.4 20 30
Bolivia 42.8 20.1 11.2 23.1 86.3 54.2 14.2 58.3 52.9 69.9 67.8 15 40
Bosnia and Herzegovina 62.6 44.4 33.9 41.8 83.6 49.3 97.3 45.7 67.4 82.7 80.0 65 60
Botswana 69.6 60.9 45.2 46.4 87.0 69.1 97.5 69.3 68.2 73.6 82.8 65 70
Brazil 53.7 57.3 46.7 45.6 70.4 54.6 4.6 60.5 49.5 77.2 67.8 60 50
Brunei Darussalam 66.6 69.8 56.8 49.6 89.8 61.5 20.0 84.1 90.5 77.1 85.0 65 50
Bulgaria 70.2 64.2 45.4 44.2 90.3 66.1 99.2 62.6 68.1 85.7 86.4 70 60
Burkina Faso 56.7 46.9 42.6 34.1 81.3 77.0 49.2 47.6 52.1 82.4 61.8 65 40
Burma 54.0 32.5 14.3 31.5 86.6 87.5 84.6 53.1 59.9 77.5 70.8 30 20
Burundi 49.0 24.9 26.9 22.3 73.7 85.8 13.2 55.1 67.4 70.3 68.2 50 30
Cambodia 57.3 43.1 28.1 14.8 89.4 83.9 94.8 31.2 62.5 74.8 65.4 50 50
Cameroon 53.6 45.3 30.8 20.8 74.8 88.3 63.7 46.0 50.1 84.1 59.6 30 50
Canada 78.2 87.7 72.7 90.3 76.5 50.9 83.3 81.7 72.0 76.0 87.0 80 80
Cabo Verde 63.6 47.5 48.0 46.1 77.7 71.7 66.2 58.5 55.6 83.1 68.2 80 60
Central African Republic 50.7 38.1 31.7 24.3 65.5 93.5 95.3 24.3 40.4 73.3 47.2 45 30
Chad 50.2 32.4 27.4 15.1 45.8 93.5 95.6 26.8 43.0 76.1 47.2 60 40
Chile 76.8 69.9 61.1 73.4 76.4 80.8 90.5 75.0 64.7 85.2 89.0 85 70
China 59.5 60.9 76.3 46.0 70.4 67.9 67.5 76.8 64.4 71.1 72.4 20 20
Colombia 69.2 61.1 32.8 46.1 70.4 77.0 85.5 71.3 78.0 77.5 81.2 80 70
Comoros 53.7 43.1 31.7 23.8 63.6 73.6 85.0 47.8 60.3 81.7 59.2 45 30
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo 49.5 30.1 26.5 13.1 74.4 95.4 98.0 51.2 41.6 49.6 64.6 30 20
Congo, Republic of 41.8 40.7 30.0 23.1 63.3 56.2 0.6 37.5 35.3 83.2 56.8 45 30
Costa Rica 65.8 66.7 54.4 57.2 78.9 88.4 39.7 66.5 55.0 81.2 81.4 70 50
Côte d'Ivoire 59.7 48.5 33.0 25.5 77.8 82.5 66.9 62.3 49.2 75.7 69.4 75 50
Croatia 62.2 69.9 39.6 51.0 65.9 34.7 89.1 53.6 44.0 77.6 86.4 75 60
Cuba 26.9 20.1 10.0 38.7 49.5 0.0 14.8 20.0 20.0 64.1 65.6 10 10
Cyprus 70.1 77.4 50.5 57.6 74.8 58.6 80.0 76.6 59.7 84.3 86.4 75 60
Czech Republic 74.8 76.8 49.9 64.2 82.0 52.7 97.8 69.7 77.6 80.8 86.4 80 80
Denmark 78.3 86.3 84.6 93.0 42.0 19.7 97.7 88.7 86.2 84.6 86.4 90 80
Djibouti 52.9 58.8 31.7 25.5 75.3 53.6 10.9 62.3 60.6 76.5 49.8 80 50
Dominica 60.8 59.8 62.6 51.2 70.5 16.0 86.2 70.4 60.7 83.5 68.4 70 30
Dominican Republic 60.9 55.8 18.2 31.2 84.5 90.5 82.4 50.3 57.5 73.5 76.6 70 40
Ecuador 51.3 40.4 20.7 33.4 77.5 57.9 62.3 53.8 48.0 81.0 66.0 35 40
Egypt 54.0 48.5 51.2 34.0 86.1 69.9 2.8 62.0 51.5 61.3 70.2 60 50
El Salvador 61.6 41.6 30.1 31.6 77.8 82.8 80.0 53.6 52.3 78.6 80.8 70 60
Equatorial Guinea 48.3 38.1 19.5 15.1 75.1 86.4 77.2 37.5 34.2 78.1 48.8 40 30
Eritrea 38.5 32.5 14.3 21.4 81.4 74.7 0.0 18.2 69.7 61.0 69.2 0 20
Estonia 77.7 83.2 73.7 85.9 81.1 53.3 99.9 73.5 57.3 78.6 86.4 90 70
Eswatini 55.3 49.8 42.4 37.2 72.8 62.8 17.6 58.9 67.9 75.2 88.6 50 40
Ethiopia 53.6 36.5 45.1 29.4 77.4 90.8 79.2 48.6 57.6 62.7 60.8 35 20
Fiji 63.4 69.9 42.6 45.6 80.5 68.9 84.2 62.6 76.2 72.5 52.8 55 50
Finland 75.7 92.3 80.5 96.1 67.5 11.2 90.7 84.8 50.3 83.6 86.4 85 80
France 66.0 85.9 71.2 83.3 48.8 4.5 67.1 82.5 46.1 76.7 81.4 75 70
Gabon 56.7 36.9 20.8 36.7 74.3 89.3 88.9 52.1 52.3 77.3 51.2 60 40
Gambia 56.3 43.9 43.4 39.2 74.6 85.6 25.3 53.5 67.4 63.3 64.6 65 50
Georgia 77.1 68.6 57.9 64.8 87.1 73.6 94.4 85.3 76.3 78.3 88.6 80 70
Germany 73.5 80.5 74.3 82.8 60.9 42.2 92.9 82.8 53.0 76.7 86.4 80 70
Ghana 59.4 52.5 46.1 32.2 78.4 88.1 35.6 58.4 59.3 68.9 63.8 70 60
Greece 59.9 57.0 48.6 51.2 59.0 31.5 80.0 73.7 52.0 79.4 81.4 55 50
Guatemala 64.0 45.5 32.2 29.6 79.2 95.6 95.7 62.6 48.4 77.4 82.2 70 50
Guinea 56.5 38.7 33.3 16.1 70.0 91.4 93.8 55.4 58.0 70.6 60.4 50 40
Guinea-Bissau 53.3 41.3 48.4 14.8 88.7 86.7 67.3 39.1 61.2 82.7 49.0 30 30
Guyana 56.2 53.6 42.6 34.1 66.0 64.4 58.6 58.9 62.1 82.5 66.8 55 30
Haiti 52.3 16.4 23.3 22.3 80.2 89.4 96.3 33.6 62.3 61.5 67.0 45 30
Honduras 61.1 48.6 34.2 28.6 82.3 78.2 96.7 56.7 31.5 72.2 79.4 65 60
Hong Kong 89.1 93.6 76.8 84.7 93.0 90.3 99.9 96.2 89.1 80.7 95.0 80 90
Hungary 66.4 64.8 45.7 47.5 79.9 34.5 83.6 60.2 64.6 79.9 86.4 80 70
Iceland 77.1 87.6 63.2 90.3 71.7 44.1 97.5 84.7 63.5 80.3 86.8 85 70
India 56.5 63.0 64.1 47.2 79.4 77.9 13.1 65.6 41.2 73.0 73.4 40 40
Indonesia 67.2 59.8 56.2 37.2 83.4 91.7 90.2 70.0 49.2 78.4 80.8 50 60
Iran 49.2 36.9 37.1 33.5 81.0 89.2 86.5 57.3 50.7 49.0 54.6 5 10
Iraq N/A 43.9 11.2 20.8 N/A 59.5 76.6 52.6 44.8 76.4 N/A N/A N/A
Ireland 80.9 86.6 64.4 82.8 76.4 78.8 91.4 82.7 75.9 85.3 86.4 90 70
Israel 74.0 82.3 71.8 77.2 61.0 53.5 89.2 72.2 64.4 84.9 86.2 75 70
Italy 63.8 75.4 51.3 62.2 56.0 28.5 71.1 70.4 50.9 83.2 86.4 80 50
Jamaica 68.5 62.1 50.5 46.8 80.0 74.8 80.2 77.7 74.0 77.7 68.4 80 50
Japan 73.3 86.6 71.4 80.5 68.3 55.8 62.0 81.4 78.7 84.4 80.0 70 60
Jordan 66.0 64.8 54.6 49.6 91.8 73.5 55.9 60.1 52.5 77.6 81.2 70 60
Kazakhstan 69.6 61.3 62.1 40.9 92.3 85.5 84.1 74.6 86.0 68.1 80.2 50 50
Kenya 55.3 63.2 48.6 28.2 78.7 79.6 13.5 55.0 55.8 75.0 60.4 55 50
Kiribati 45.2 47.5 34.2 24.3 72.4 0.0 99.0 40.6 62.9 82.2 23.8 25 30
Korea, North 4.2 20.1 5.0 15.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 0 0
Korea, South 74.0 82.5 61.0 67.5 63.9 67.7 96.7 90.5 56.2 82.1 80.0 70 70
Kosovo 67.4 66.3 54.1 39.2 92.6 76.5 94.0 75.0 61.0 78.4 76.2 65 30
Kuwait 63.2 57.1 47.0 46.0 97.7 22.4 99.6 61.3 62.2 73.2 76.4 55 60
Kyrgyz Republic 62.9 53.6 31.3 32.0 94.1 58.5 66.7 73.6 79.6 76.4 79.2 60 50
Laos 55.5 42.5 37.3 32.0 87.0 86.6 53.3 54.3 58.6 76.8 82.0 35 20
Latvia 71.9 72.3 51.1 46.4 76.9 58.3 96.5 77.0 72.4 80.2 86.4 85 60
Lebanon 51.7 44.6 30.8 25.0 90.8 72.5 0.0 45.6 47.8 75.6 77.4 60 50
Lesotho 54.5 45.2 47.0 29.6 73.0 34.4 60.3 52.8 58.8 75.7 82.2 55 40
Liberia 49.0 31.1 37.9 23.8 86.1 65.5 59.7 48.2 38.2 62.1 60.6 55 20
Libya N/A 30.1 20.8 18.9 N/A 0 N/A 40.7 53.9 53.6 N/A 5 N/A
Liechtenstein N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 85 80
Lithuania 76.7 77.9 62.1 67.4 84.9 66 97.4 71.9 76.5 79.7 86.4 80 70
Luxembourg 75.8 86.4 74.4 90.3 64.1 45.4 99.0 66.8 45.3 76.4 86.4 95 80
Macau 70.3 60.0 60.0 33.5 75.0 89.8 99.9 60.0 50.0 70.0 90.0 85 70
North Macedonia 69.5 62.5 42.7 42.2 91.5 71.0 87.7 80.6 67.0 77.7 86.2 65 60
Madagascar 60.5 45.6 39.6 25.0 90.7 91.5 90.6 47.3 44.6 72.7 73.6 55 50
Malawi 52.8 43.1 42.1 24.8 79.0 71.7 23.6 41.9 62.8 69.1 75.4 50 50
Malaysia 74.7 86.5 74.6 49.4 85.7 84.6 80.2 87.8 74.5 81.6 82.0 60 50
Maldives 56.5 48.5 31.7 39.2 95.8 67.9 42.9 78.7 70.6 77.0 61.0 35 30
Mali 55.9 36.1 32.7 20.7 69.2 85.8 73.6 49.2 52.2 81.6 65.0 65 40
Malta 69.5 70.5 49.6 55.1 64.8 60.0 95.9 68.0 61.1 77.1 86.4 85 60
Mauritania 55.3 32.5 20.8 21.9 80.9 76.4 85.9 61.7 51.3 79.6 62.6 50 40
Mauritius 74.9 75.8 62.6 53.3 91.5 82.1 79.3 82.5 60.2 73.8 88.2 80 70
Mexico 66.0 58.3 34.7 36.7 76.1 79.3 87.5 67.0 58.4 70.9 87.6 75 60
Micronesia 52.0 30.1 26.5 22.3 92.9 0.0 99.2 56.9 78.2 82.2 70.8 35 30
Moldova 62.0 60.5 31.7 37.2 86.1 71.6 96.2 68.1 37.0 72.0 78.0 55 50
Mongolia 55.9 50.3 23.0 36.9 87.4 66.6 9.3 63.6 75.7 74.2 74.0 50 60
Montenegro 61.5 59.1 55.3 47.5 85.4 32.1 23.4 70.8 74.8 80.3 83.8 75 50
Morocco 63.3 66.3 48.0 39.2 71.8 72.8 67.2 70.4 33.0 77.0 78.6 65 70
Mozambique 50.5 34.9 31.7 23.2 74.1 69.6 40.3 55.3 41.7 72.0 78.0 35 50
Namibia 60.9 58.9 58.5 46.0 65.7 58.1 28.7 65.6 84.9 75.9 83.2 65 40
Nepal 54.2 40.7 32.0 31.5 83.4 77.9 98.1 61.6 53.7 71.2 60.4 10 30
Netherlands 77.0 90.0 73.9 90.1 51.7 45.2 94.1 80.4 60.2 82.5 86.4 90 80
New Zealand 84.1 93.3 79.1 93.9 71.0 57.8 98.3 90.4 86.7 87.0 92.2 80 80
Nicaragua 57.2 33.5 19.5 24.3 76.3 77.5 87.2 55.1 55.5 71.5 75.4 60 50
Niger 54.7 45.6 42.6 33.4 76.7 79.0 44.7 55.4 47.9 74.8 61.2 55 40
Nigeria 57.2 38.1 32.2 22.3 85.1 96.2 64.1 54.7 84.0 61.7 62.4 45 40
Norway 73.4 84.3 82.8 95.6 57.7 25.6 97.3 86.1 57.4 74.8 83.8 75 60
Oman 63.6 66.4 66.2 64.6 98.4 36.2 14.8 74.6 56.9 78.4 81.6 65 60
Pakistan 54.8 48.3 43.2 29.7 80.4 86.8 40.4 54.9 41.3 72.5 64.8 55 40
Panama 67.2 58.8 30.0 37.2 85.3 85.7 91.2 70.8 43.3 79.4 79.2 75 70
Papua New Guinea 58.4 54.9 48.4 29.7 71.5 86.4 76.4 58.4 69.6 70.7 79.8 25 30
Paraguay 63.0 44.7 26.4 29.6 96.1 88.6 98.0 60.9 29.0 72.5 75.4 75 60
Peru 67.9 54.9 30.6 33.5 80.8 86.4 89.0 67.1 62.9 86.3 88.4 75 60
Philippines 64.5 54.6 34.2 38.7 76.7 87.9 96.3 59.5 57.4 66.9 81.6 60 60
Poland 69.1 63.1 42.8 64.6 74.7 48.8 92.2 62.6 62.0 82.0 86.4 80 70
Portugal 67.0 75.4 65.6 68.9 59.6 39.8 74.4 76.5 44.1 83.0 86.4 70 60
Qatar 72.3 66.9 58.7 64.6 99.8 64.6 93.7 71.1 65.9 80.6 81.6 60 60
Romania 69.7 72.5 56.1 55.1 90.3 70.4 85.6 58.6 63.0 78.1 86.4 70 50
Russia 61.0 56.8 44.4 41.3 88.5 63.8 98.7 80.2 52.1 68.2 77.8 30 30
Rwanda 70.9 76.5 78.3 57.6 79.2 79.8 86.7 60.3 81.8 79.8 70.4 60 40
Saint Lucia 68.2 69.8 62.6 41.8 76.9 80.6 83.8 76.7 66.4 82.0 73.2 65 40
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 66.8 50.5 62.6 46.1 72.4 73.7 89.0 75.8 73.3 80.8 67.2 70 40
Samoa 62.1 60.5 31.7 31.5 79.6 62.5 94.6 76.6 78.8 79.5 64.6 55 30
São Tomé and Príncipe 56.2 41.0 26.5 37.4 88.3 77.1 73.0 64.8 43.4 68.1 64.2 60 30
Saudi Arabia 62.4 64.6 72.3 49.6 99.8 61.8 19.3 66.6 63.3 81.0 75.4 45 50
Senegal 58.0 52.4 39.8 40.6 70.2 84.4 75.2 50.4 38.1 79.7 65.4 60 40
Serbia 66.0 55.4 46.8 44.0 83.7 49.7 94.1 72.6 66.9 80.7 78.0 70 50
Seychelles 64.3 68.3 46.4 53.3 76.8 58.9 93.2 65.3 62.8 78.6 82.6 55 30
Sierra Leone 48.0 40.7 39.4 21.8 87.5 83.5 9.8 50.1 29.7 64.2 69.4 60 20
Singapore 89.4 96.8 92.9 92.4 90.3 91.1 80.0 92.8 90.9 85.6 94.8 85 80
Slovakia 66.8 73.1 41.7 49.7 78.5 50.2 92.6 55.3 52.6 75.9 86.4 75 70
Slovenia 67.8 76.5 48.6 67.4 59.2 42.9 90.3 78.4 61.4 82.2 86.4 70 50
Solomon Islands 52.9 54.6 53.7 33.5 65.6 34.2 76.6 67.7 72.0 84.3 48.0 15 30
Somalia N/A 20.1 26.5 13.1 N/A N/A N/A 31.6 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
South Africa 58.8 58.4 38.0 46.6 63.7 67.4 64.0 62.0 58.8 75.9 75.8 45 50
Spain 66.9 74.9 51.8 55.1 62.1 48.3 62.6 66.8 57.7 82.0 86.4 85 70
Sri Lanka 57.4 47.7 39.2 34.7 84.8 88.9 39.3 76.5 58.6 71.1 67.6 40 40
Sudan 45.0 33.7 20.8 25.5 86.1 94.5 12.4 53.5 60.0 77.0 52.0 5 20
Suriname 49.5 45.6 19.5 36.9 70.5 74.8 10.3 48.2 71.9 76.1 69.8 40 30
Sweden 74.9 88.8 79.9 91.4 43.6 25.8 97.0 85.3 53.8 81.2 86.4 85 80
Switzerland 82.0 87.4 81.5 90.1 70.1 65.3 96.7 74.2 72.4 84.4 86.6 85 90
Syria N/A 45.6 20.8 21.9 N/A N/A N/A 48.9 59.3 58.8 51.6 0 N/A
Taiwan 77.1 86.9 70.1 68.9 75.0 90.5 91.0 93.9 60.3 82.7 86.0 60 60
Tajikistan 52.2 49.1 50.0 32.0 91.8 62.3 26.0 65.9 47.7 71.0 75.0 25 30
Tanzania 61.7 41.9 43.4 32.5 80.6 91.6 92.9 45.9 66.4 72.2 67.8 55 50
Thailand 69.4 59.5 48.0 43.4 80.7 85.9 96.4 83.0 63.7 74.0 83.0 55 60
Timor-Leste 45.9 45.2 12.6 32.5 96.3 5.3 19.9 64.0 58.9 76.5 75.0 45 20
Togo 54.1 41.6 31.7 31.2 67.5 78.6 59.4 55.0 46.9 79.5 63.2 65 30
Tonga 58.8 60.9 26.5 44.2 85.2 42.8 95.2 75.0 69.8 71.4 74.0 40 20
Trinidad and Tobago 58.3 56.6 42.1 37.4 82.6 66.5 15.9 67.3 76.0 77.4 67.8 60 50
Tunisia 55.8 56.4 43.6 39.7 74.2 73.1 38.8 78.1 49.8 73.9 66.4 45 30
Turkey 64.4 57.4 53.7 44.6 76.7 64.1 86.1 67.0 49.2 66.1 78.0 70 60
Turkmenistan 46.5 20.1 20.0 21.4 95.9 93.1 94.5 30.0 20.0 68.7 74.2 10 10
Uganda 59.5 45.6 36.9 21.4 80.3 88.4 64.3 46.0 83.1 78.0 75.4 55 40
Ukraine 54.9 47.5 42.2 37.9 81.1 47.2 83.9 61.3 48.3 63.0 81.2 35 30
United Arab Emirates 76.2 80.3 84.6 64.6 99.2 72.1 94.1 78.6 81.3 79.6 80.4 40 60
United Kingdom 79.3 92.2 82.7 89.9 64.7 49.5 78.1 94.7 73.1 80.3 86.4 80 80
United States 76.6 81.8 83.7 77.2 74.6 56.5 54.3 83.3 87.9 75.5 79.8 85 80
Uruguay 69.1 72.0 59.8 73.5 75.2 66.5 72.3 73.6 71.0 72.7 77.4 85 30
Uzbekistan 57.2 59.1 34.2 28.2 91.6 74.7 98.9 72.6 59.9 59.9 67.6 20 20
Vanuatu 60.7 68.3 36.1 37.4 97.1 61.1 78.4 51.8 54.6 74.6 63.4 65 40
Venezuela 25.2 10.1 12.6 14.6 72.8 66.3 0.0 30.8 27.7 0.0 58.0 0 10
Vietnam 58.8 52.6 40.1 33.8 79.5 75.9 58.0 65.6 62.5 68.2 79.6 40 50
Yemen N/A 22.5 20.1 21.9 N/A 96.5 60.1 43.9 43.8 42.6 70 50 N/A
Zambia 53.5 45.2 31.3 28.4 73.2 81.7 18.4 66.4 47.0 72.2 72.6 55 50
Zimbabwe 43.1 33.7 28.3 18.9 62.3 88.0 36.2 39.1 43.1 62.8 70.0 25 10

Historical Index


Country/Region 20082007200620052004200320022001200019991998199719961995
 Hong Kong[lower-alpha 1]11111111111111
 Ireland33344443101111132720
 Australia44798101185579108
 United States56557786878854
 New Zealand6543333433333
 Canada710101212131421202527262018
 Chile888811129121212971314
  Switzerland99965661064444
 United Kingdom107679977465573
 Denmark11121313172023333332343031
 Estonia12111514108109241315243826
 Netherlands13151618141414162157242023
 Iceland141311101916191515191819
 Luxembourg151412116555715131215
 Finland16161721161516275054553947
 Japan171818365034392319272121146
 Mauritius18323535515233453620
 Bahrain19242322131112111186665
 Belgium20172430303334575560484436
 Barbados21272024282317202737334653
 Cyprus22202120151920223533292730
 Germany2322252827262529434052292517
 The Bahamas2419191520171514161010101111
 Taiwan25252919262122181718202297
 Lithuania262122231827435367677478104
 Sweden2733272724242443475153535541
 Armenia28301425233732466296117123125
 Trinidad and Tobago29232617212926191316171624
 Austria3026303432353637315343402616
 Spain3128323129282936414562686534
 Georgia32315493788410487107114122125123
 El Salvador33292816222221179922182119
 Norway34373445423937412229314139
 Slovakia353633424877768510810585857546
 Botswana3635312625304242425960725657
 Czech Republic3739404735364026302328542923
 Latvia38383739334452445750565786
 Kuwait39414148554346352524384235
 Uruguay4034433337253024283026314637

See also


References


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