Indo-Aryan languages

The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, themselves a branch of the Indo-European language family. As of the early 21st century more than 800 million people speak Indo-Aryan languages, primarily in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.[1] Moreover, large immigrant and expatriate Indo-Aryan-speaking communities live in Northwestern Europe, Western Asia, North America, Southeast Africa and Australia. There are well over 200 known Indo-Aryan languages.[2]

Indo-Aryan
Indic
Geographic
distribution
South Asia
Linguistic classificationIndo-European
Proto-languageProto-Indo-Aryan
Subdivisions
ISO 639-2 / 5inc
Linguasphere59= (phylozone)
Glottologindo1321
Present-day geographical distribution of the major Indo-Aryan language groups. Romani, Domari, Kholosi, Luwati, and Lomavren are outside the scope of the map.
  Chitrali (Dardic)
  Shina (Dardic)
  Kohistani (Dardic)
  Kashmiri (Dardic)
  Sindhi (Northwestern)
  Gujarati (Western)
  Bhili (Western)
  Khandeshi (Western)
  Himachali-Dogri (= W. Pahari, Northern)
  Garhwali-Kumaoni (= C. Pahari, Northern)
  Nepali (= E. Pahari, Northern)
  Eastern Hindi (Central)
  Bengali-Assamese (Eastern)
  Odia (Eastern)
  Halbi (Eastern)
  Sinhala-Maldivian (Southern)
(not shown: Kunar (Dardic), Gawri and Torwali varieties of Kohistani, Chinali-Lahuli)

Modern Indo-Aryan languages descend from Old Indo-Aryan languages such as early Vedic, through Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Prakrits).[3][4][5][6] The largest such languages in terms of L1 speakers are Hindustani (about 329 million),[7] Bengali (242 million),[8] Punjabi (about 120 million),[9] Marathi, (112 million), Gujarati (60 million), Rajasthani (58 million), Bhojpuri (51 million), Odia (35 million), Maithili (about 34 million), Sindhi (25 million), Nepali (16 million), Assamese (15 million), Chhattisgarhi (18 million) and Romani (ca. 3.5 million). A 2005 estimate placed the total number of native speakers of Indo-Aryan languages at nearly 900 million.[10]