Indonesian language

Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia, [baˈha.sa in.ˈdɔ.nɛ.sja]) is the official language of Indonesia. It is a standardized variety of Malay,[3] an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation in the world—of which the majority speak Indonesian, which makes it one of the more widely spoken languages in the world.[4]

Indonesian
bahasa Indonesia
Pronunciation[baˈha.sa in.doˈne.sja]
Native toIndonesia
Native speakers
43 million (2010 census)[1]
L2 speakers: 156 million (2010 census)[1]
Early forms
Latin (Indonesian alphabet)
Indonesian Braille
BISINDO, SIBI
Official status
Official language in
 Indonesia
 ASEAN
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byLanguage and Book Development Agency
Language codes
ISO 639-1id
ISO 639-2ind
ISO 639-3ind
Glottologindo1316
Linguasphere31-MFA-ac
  Countries of the world where Indonesian is a majority native language
  Countries where Indonesian is a minority language
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Indonesian speaker

Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are fluent in at least one of the more than 700 indigenous local languages; examples include Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese, which are commonly used at home and within the local community.[5][6] However, most formal education and nearly all national mass media, governance, administration, and judiciary and other forms of communication are conducted in Indonesian.[7]

The term "Indonesian" is primarily associated with the national standard dialect (bahasa baku).[8] However, in a more loose sense, it also encompasses the various local varieties spoken throughout the Indonesian archipelago.[3][9] Standard Indonesian is confined mostly to formal situations, existing in a diglossic relationship with vernacular Malay varieties, which are commonly used for daily communication, coexisting with the aforementioned regional languages.[8][5]

The Indonesian name for the language (bahasa Indonesia) is also occasionally found in English and other languages.