Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir

The insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir (also Kashmiri Insurgency, or Kashmir intifada[13][14][15]) is against the Indian administration of Jammu and Kashmir,[44][45] a region constituting the southern portion of the larger Kashmir region, which has been the subject of a dispute between India and Pakistan since 1947.[46][47]

Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir
A map of the disputed Kashmir region showing the Indian-administered region in citrine yellow. Jammu and Kashmir is roughly the left half of this region. Pakistani-administered Kashmir is shown in tea green, and Chinese-administered Kashmir in fallow brown
Date13 July 1989[1] – present (32 years, 4 months and 1 week)
StatusOngoing (Medium Level Insurgency)[2]
Parties to the civil conflict
Lead figures
Ram Nath Kovind
Narendra Modi
(Prime Minister)
Rajnath Singh
(Minister of Defence)
Manoj Mukund Naravane
(COAS General)
Rakesh Kumar Singh Bhadauria
(COS General)
Syed Ali Shah Geelani (Until 2021)
Masarat Alam Bhat (Present 2021)[30]
Mohammad Abbas Ansari
Amanullah Khan
Hafiz Saeed
Maulana Azhar
Zakir Rashid Bhat 
Ilyas Kashmiri 
Sayeed Salahudeen
Burhan Wani 
Asiya Andrabi
Fazlur Rehman Khalil
Farooq Kashmiri
Arfeen Bhai
Bakht Zameen

Islamic State-aligned

Dawood Ahmed Sofi [31]

[34] (Nov 2019, including soldier posted at international border(LoC))

Casualties and losses

~6000+ security forces personnel killed[35][36]

~7000+ security forces personnel killed (per SATP)[37][38]
26,000+ militants killed[39] [40]
3,000+ captured[41]
4,500+ surrendered[41]
50,000[42]–100,000+ killed overall[43]

Jammu and Kashmir, long a breeding ground of separatist ambitions,[48] has been wracked by the insurgency since 1989.[49][45] Although the failure of Indian governance and democracy lay at the root of the initial disaffection, Pakistan played an important role in converting the latter into a fully developed insurgency.[44][50] Some insurgent groups in Kashmir support the complete independence, whereas others seek accession to Pakistan.[51][50]

More explicitly, the roots of the insurgency are tied to a dispute over local autonomy.[52] Democratic development was limited in Kashmir until the late 1970s and by 1988 many of the democratic reforms provided by the Indian government had been reversed and non-violent channels for expressing discontent were limited and caused a dramatic increase in support for insurgents advocating violent secession from India.[52] In 1987, a disputed State election[53] created a catalyst for the insurgency when it resulted in some of the state's legislative assembly members forming armed insurgent groups.[54][55][56] In July 1988, a series of demonstrations, strikes and attacks on the Indian government began the Kashmir insurgency, which during the 1990s escalated into the most important internal security issue in India.

Pakistan claims to be giving its "moral and diplomatic" support to the separatist movement.[57] The Inter-Services Intelligence of Pakistan has been accused by India and the international community of supporting, supplying arms and training mujahideen,[58][59] to fight in Jammu and Kashmir.[60][59][61] In 2015, former President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf admitted that Pakistan had supported and trained insurgent groups in the 1990s.[62] India has repeatedly called Pakistan to end its "cross-border terrorism" in Kashmir.[57] Several new militant groups with radical Islamic views emerged and changed the ideological emphasis of the movement to Islamic. This had happened partly due to a large number of Islamic "Jihadi" fighters (mujahideen) who had entered the Kashmir valley following the end of the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s.[57]

The conflict between the militants and the Indian forces have led to large number of casualties.[63] Many civilians have also died as a result of being targeted by the various armed groups.[64] According to official figures released in Jammu and Kashmir assembly, there were 3,400 disappearance cases and the conflict has left more than 47,000 people dead which also includes 7,000 police personnel as of July 2009.[65] Some rights groups claim a higher figure of 100,000 deaths since 1989.[43] Since the revocation of the special status of Jammu and Kashmir in August 2019, the Indian military has intensified its counter-insurgency operations. Clashes in the first half of 2020 left 229 dead, including 32 civilians. The 283 people killed in all of 2019 was the highest toll for a decade.[66]