Irish migration to Great Britain

Irish migration to Great Britain has occurred from the earliest recorded history to the present. There has been a continuous movement of people between the islands of Ireland and Great Britain due to their proximity. This tide has ebbed and flowed in response to politics, economics and social conditions of both places.

Irish migration to Great Britain
Irish migration from the island of Ireland (green) to Great Britain (red).
Total population
  • 6,000,000 with at least 25% Irish ancestry
    (10% of the British population)
  • 14,000,000 with less than 25% Irish ancestry[1]
    (25% of the British population)
Regions with significant populations
Throughout Great Britain, especially Glasgow, London, West Midlands (Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Coventry, Solihull), North West England (Liverpool, Birkenhead, Salford, Bootle, Manchester, Stockport, Bolton, Chester, Barrow-in-Furness, St. Helens, Whitehaven, Cleator Moor, Heywood, Runcorn, Widnes, Ellesmere Port, Skelmersdale), West Yorkshire (Bradford, Keighley, Dewsbury, Batley, Huddersfield), North East England (Newcastle Upon Tyne, Sunderland, Middlesbrough, Hartlepool, Jarrow, Gateshead, South Shields), Swansea, Luton, Portsmouth, Coatbridge, Edinburgh and Dundee
Languages
British English · Hiberno-English · Irish · Shelta · Scots (including Ulster-Scots) ·
Religion
Christianity
Roman Catholic (majority), Protestant (minority)
Related ethnic groups
Irish people, Overseas Irish, Irish-Americans, Irish Australians, Irish New Zealanders, Ulster-Scots

Ireland was a feudal Lordship of the Kings of England between 1171 and 1541; a Kingdom in personal union with the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Great Britain between 1542 and 1801; and politically united with Great Britain as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland between 1801 and 1922. Today, Ireland is divided between the independent Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland, a constituent of the United Kingdom.

Today, millions of residents of Great Britain are either from Ireland or have Irish ancestry.[2] The modern era of Irish migration has also seen Asian Irish and black Irish people move to Britain. It is estimated that as many as six million people living in the UK have at least one Irish grandparent (around 10% of the UK population).[3]

The Irish diaspora (Irish: Diaspóra na nGael) refers to Irish people and their descendants who live outside Ireland. This article refers to those who reside in Great Britain, the largest island and principal territory of the United Kingdom.