Italian Social Movement
The Italian Social Movement (Italian: Movimento Sociale Italiano, MSI), renamed in 1972 Italian Social Movement – National Right (Italian: Movimento Sociale Italiano – Destra Nazionale, MSI–DN), was a neo-fascist, nationalist and national-conservative political party in Italy.
Augusto De Marsanich
|Founded||26 December 1946|
|Dissolved||27 January 1995|
|Merger of||Italian Movement of Social Unity|
Front of the Italian
|Preceded by||Republican Fascist Party (not legal predecessor)|
|Succeeded by||National Alliance (legal successor)|
Tricolour Flame (split)
|Headquarters||Via della Scrofa 43, Rome (last)|
|Youth wing||Young Italy (1954–71) |
Youth Front (1971–95)
240,063 (peak, 1963)
|Political position||Right-wing to far-right|
|European affiliation||European Social Movement (1951–62)|
National Party of Europe (1962–66)
|European Parliament group||Non-Inscrits (1979–84)|
European Right (1984–89)
Formed in 1946 by supporters of the former dictator Benito Mussolini, most of whom took part in the experience of the Italian Social Republic and the Republican Fascist Party, the MSI became the fourth largest party in Italy by the early 1960s. The party gave informal local and eventually national support to the Christian Democrats from the late 1940s and through the 1950s, sharing anti-communist ideologies. In the early 1960s, the party was pushed to the sidelines of Italian politics, and only gradually started to gain some political recognition in the 1980s.
There was internal competition between the party's moderate and radical factions. The radicals led the party in its formative years under Giorgio Almirante, while the moderates gained control in the 1950s and 1960s. Almirante's return as leader in 1969 was characterised by bigger-tent strategy. Finally, in 1987, the reins of the party were taken by Gianfranco Fini, under whom it was transformed into National Alliance (AN) in 1995. On that occasion a small minority, led by Pino Rauti, disagreed with the new course and formed Tricolour Flame instead.