Ivan III of Russia

Ivan III Vasilyevich (Russian: Иван III Васильевич; 22 January 1440, Moscow – 27 October 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great,[1][2] was a Grand Prince of Moscow and Grand Prince of all Rus'. Ivan served as the co-ruler and regent for his blind father Vasily II from the mid-1450s before he officially ascended the throne in 1462.

Ivan III
Grand Prince of All Rus'
Portrait from the 17th-century Titulyarnik
Grand Prince of Moscow
Reign28 March 1462 – 27 October 1505
Coronation14 April 1502
PredecessorVasily II
SuccessorVasily III
Born22 January 1440
Moscow, Grand Duchy of Moscow
Died27 October 1505(1505-10-27) (aged 65)
Moscow, Grand Duchy of Moscow
Burial
Consort
Issue
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HouseRurik
FatherVasily II of Russia
MotherMaria of Borovsk
ReligionRussian Orthodox

He tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the Mongols/Tatars over Russia, renovated the Moscow Kremlin, introduced a new legal codex and laid the foundations of the Russian state. His 1480 victory over the Great Horde is cited as the restoration of Russian independence 240 years after the fall of Kiev to Mongols' invasion.[3]

Ivan was the first Russian ruler to style himself "tsar", albeit not as an official title. Through marriage to Sofia Paleologue, he made the double-headed eagle Russia's coat of arms and adopted the idea of Moscow as Third Rome. His 43-year reign was one of the longest in Russian history, second only to that of his grandson Ivan IV.