Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire,[lower-alpha 1] officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located on the south coast of West Africa. Ivory Coast's political capital is Yamoussoukro in the centre of the country, while its economic capital and largest city is the port city of Abidjan. It borders Guinea to the northwest, Liberia to the west, Mali to the northwest, Burkina Faso to the northeast, Ghana to the east, and the Gulf of Guinea (Atlantic Ocean) to the south. The official language of the republic is French, with local indigenous languages also being widely used that include Tsien, Baoulé, Dioula, Dan, Anyin, and Cebaara Senufo. In total, there are around 78 different languages spoken in Ivory Coast. The country has large populations of the adherents of Christianity, Islam and various indigenous religions.

Republic of Côte d'Ivoire
République de Côte d'Ivoire (French)
Motto: ‘Union – Discipline – Travail’ (French)
'Unity – Discipline – Work'
Anthem: L'Abidjanaise
(English: "Song of Abidjan")
CapitalYamoussoukro (de jure)
Abidjan (de facto)
6°51′N 5°18′W
Largest cityAbidjan
Official languagesFrench
Vernacular
languages
Ethnic groups
(2018)
Religion
(2020)[1]
Demonym(s)
  • Ivorian
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
 President
Alassane Ouattara
Vacant
Patrick Achi
LegislatureParliament of Ivory Coast
Senate
National Assembly
History
 Republic established
4 December 1958
 Independence from France
7 August 1960
Area
 Total
322,463 km2 (124,504 sq mi) (68th)
 Water (%)
1.4[2]
Population
 2020 estimate
26,378,274[3] (53rd)
 Density
63.9/km2 (165.5/sq mi) (139th)
GDP (PPP)2020 estimate
 Total
$144.497 billion[4] (79th)
 Per capita
$5,360[4]
GDP (nominal)2020 estimate
 Total
$61.502 billion[4]
 Per capita
$2,281[4]
Gini (2015) 41.5[5]
medium
HDI (2019) 0.538[6]
low · 162nd
CurrencyWest African CFA franc (XOF)
Time zoneUTC (GMT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+225
ISO 3166 codeCI
Internet TLD.ci
  1. Including approximately 130,000 Lebanese and 14,000 French people.

Before its colonization by Europeans, Ivory Coast was home to several states, including Gyaaman, the Kong Empire and Baoulé. The area became a protectorate of France in 1843 and was consolidated as a French colony in 1893 amid the European scramble for Africa. It achieved independence in 1960, led by Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who ruled the country until 1993. Relatively stable by regional standards, Ivory Coast established close political and economic ties with its West African neighbours while at the same time maintaining close relations to the West, especially France. Its stability took a hit by a coup d'état in 1999 and two civil wars, first between 2002 and 2007[8] and again during 2010–2011. In 2000, the country adopted a new constitution.[8]

Ivory Coast is a republic with strong executive power vested in its president. Through the production of coffee and cocoa, the country was an economic powerhouse in West Africa during the 1960s and 1970s, though it went through an economic crisis in the 1980s, contributing to a period of political and social turmoil. It was not until around 2014 that the gross domestic product again reached the level of its peak in the 1970s.[9] In 2020, Ivory Coast was the world's largest exporter of cocoa beans and had high levels of income for its region.[10] In the 21st century, the Ivorian economy has been largely market-based, and it still relies heavily on agriculture, with smallholder cash-crop production being predominant.[2]