James Francis Edward Stuart

James Francis Edward Stuart (10 June 1688  1 January 1766), nicknamed The Old Pretender by Whigs, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena. He was Prince of Wales from July 1688 until, just months after his birth, his Catholic father was deposed and exiled in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. James II's Protestant elder daughter (the prince's half-sister), Mary II, and her husband, William III, became co-monarchs and the Bill of Rights 1689 and Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Catholics from the English throne and, subsequently, the British throne.

James Francis Edward Stuart
Prince of Wales
Portrait from the studio of Alexis Simon Belle, c.1712
Jacobite pretender
Pretence16 September 1701 – 1 January 1766
PredecessorJames II and VII
Successor"Charles III"
Born(1688-06-10)10 June 1688
St. James's Palace, London, England
Died1 January 1766(1766-01-01) (aged 77)
Palazzo Muti, Rome, Papal States
Burial
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
Spouse
(m. 1719; died 1735)
Issue
HouseStuart
FatherJames II and VII
MotherMary of Modena
ReligionRoman Catholicism

James Francis Edward was raised in Continental Europe and known as the Chevalier de St. George. After his father's death in 1701, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish crown as James III of England and Ireland and James VIII of Scotland, with the support of his Jacobite followers and his cousin Louis XIV of France. Fourteen years later, he unsuccessfully attempted to gain the throne of Britain during the Jacobite rising of 1715. A final attempt at rebellion, led by his son Charles Edward Stuart, was made in the Jacobite rising of 1745.

Following his death in 1766, his elder son, Charles Edward Stuart, continued to claim the British crown as part of the Jacobite Succession.