James Francis Edward Stuart
James Francis Edward Stuart (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766), nicknamed The Old Pretender by Whigs, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena. He was Prince of Wales from July 1688 until, just months after his birth, his Catholic father was deposed and exiled in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. James II's Protestant elder daughter (the prince's half-sister), Mary II, and her husband, William III, became co-monarchs and the Bill of Rights 1689 and Act of Settlement 1701 excluded Catholics from the English throne and, subsequently, the British throne.
|James Francis Edward Stuart|
|Prince of Wales|
|Pretence||16 September 1701 – 1 January 1766|
|Predecessor||James II and VII|
|Born||10 June 1688|
St. James's Palace, London, England
|Died||1 January 1766 77) (aged|
Palazzo Muti, Rome, Papal States
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City
(m. 1719; died 1735)
|Father||James II and VII|
|Mother||Mary of Modena|
James Francis Edward was raised in Continental Europe and known as the Chevalier de St. George. After his father's death in 1701, he claimed the English, Scottish and Irish crown as James III of England and Ireland and James VIII of Scotland, with the support of his Jacobite followers and his cousin Louis XIV of France. Fourteen years later, he unsuccessfully attempted to gain the throne of Britain during the Jacobite rising of 1715. A final attempt at rebellion, led by his son Charles Edward Stuart, was made in the Jacobite rising of 1745.