James IV of Scotland
James IV (17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513) was King of Scotland from 11 June 1488 until his death at the Battle of Flodden in 1513. He inherited the throne at the age of fifteen on the death of his father, James III, at the Battle of Sauchieburn, following a rebellion in which the younger James was the figurehead of the rebels. James IV is generally regarded as the most successful of the Stewart monarchs. He was responsible for a major expansion of the Scottish royal navy, which included the founding of two royal dockyards and the acquisition or construction of 38 ships, including the Michael, the largest warship of its time.
|King of Scotland|
|Reign||11 June 1488 – 9 September 1513|
|Coronation||24 June 1488|
|Born||17 March 1473|
Stirling Castle, Stirling, Scotland
|Died||9 September 1513 40) (aged|
Branxton, Northumberland, England
|Father||James III of Scotland|
|Mother||Margaret of Denmark|
James was a patron of the arts and took an active interest in the law, literature and science, even personally experimenting in dentistry and bloodletting. With his patronage the printing press came to Scotland, and the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and the University of Aberdeen were founded. He commissioned the building of the Palace of Holyroodhouse and Falkland Palace, and extensive building work at Linlithgow Palace, Edinburgh Castle and Stirling Castle. The education act passed by the Parliament of Scotland in 1496 introduced compulsory schooling.
During James's 25 year reign, royal income doubled, the crown exercised firm control over the Scottish church, royal administration was extended to the Highlands and the Hebrides, and by 1493 James had overcome the last independent Lord of the Isles. Relations with England were improved with the Treaty of Perpetual Peace in 1502 and James's marriage to Margaret Tudor in 1503 (the marriage led to the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when Elizabeth I of England died without heirs and James IV's great-grandson James VI succeeded to the English throne).
The long period of domestic peace after 1497 allowed James to focus more on foreign policy, which included the sending of several of his warships to aid his uncle, King John of Denmark, in his conflict with Sweden; amicable relations with the Pope, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and Louis XII of France; and James's aspiration to lead a European naval crusade against the Turks of the Ottoman Empire. James was granted the title of Protector and Defender of the Christian Faith in 1507 by Pope Julius II.
When Henry VIII of England invaded France in 1513 as part of the Holy League, James chose the Auld Alliance with the French over the 'Perpetual Peace' with the English, and answered France's call for assistance by leading a large army across the border into England. James and many of his nobles were killed at the Battle of Flodden on 9 September 1513. He was the last monarch in Great Britain to be killed in battle, and was succeeded by his son James V.