James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth

James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, 1st Duke of Buccleuch, KG, PC (9 April 1649 – 15 July 1685) was a Dutch-born English nobleman. Originally called James Crofts or James Fitzroy, he was born in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, the eldest illegitimate son of Charles II of England, Scotland, and Ireland with his mistress Lucy Walter.


The Duke of Monmouth

Duke of Monmouth by Willem Wissing
Personal details
Born9 April 1649
Rotterdam, Dutch Republic
Died15 July 1685(1685-07-15) (aged 36)
Great Tower Hill, Tower of London, Liberties of the Tower, England
Spouse(s)
Children9, including:
Parents
Military service
Allegiance Kingdom of England
Branch/service English Army
Years of service1665–1685
RankGeneral
Battles/wars

He served in the Second Anglo-Dutch War and commanded English troops taking part in the Third Anglo-Dutch War before commanding the Anglo-Dutch brigade fighting in the Franco-Dutch War. He led the unsuccessful Monmouth Rebellion in 1685, an attempt to depose his uncle King James II and VII. After one of his officers declared Monmouth the legitimate king in the town of Taunton in Somerset, Monmouth attempted to capitalise on his Protestantism and his position as the son of Charles II, in opposition to James, who was a Roman Catholic. The rebellion failed, and Monmouth was beheaded for treason on 15 July 1685.