Japan–United Kingdom relations

Japan–United Kingdom relations (日英関係, Nichieikankei) are the bilateral and diplomatic relations between Japan and the United Kingdom.

Japanese – British relations


United Kingdom
Diplomatic mission
Embassy of Japan, LondonBritish Embassy, Tokyo
Ambassador Koji TsuruokaAmbassador Paul Madden


The history of the relationship between Japan and England began in 1600 with the arrival of William Adams (Adams the Pilot, Miura Anjin), (the first of very few non-Japanese samurai) on the shores of Kyushu at Usuki in Ōita Prefecture. During the Sakoku period (1641–1853), there were no formal relations between the two countries. The Dutch served as intermediaries. The treaty of 1854 began formal diplomatic ties, which improved to become a formal alliance 1902–1922. The British dominions pressured Britain to end the alliance. Relations deteriorated rapidly in the 1930s, over the Japanese invasions of Manchuria and China, and the cutoff of oil supplies in 1941. Japan declared war in December 1941 and seized Hong Kong, British Borneo (with its oil), and Malaya. With overwhelming forces they sank much of the British fleet and forced the surrender of Singapore, capturing many prisoners. They reached the outskirts of India until being pushed back. Relations improved in the 1950s-1970s and as memories of the conflict faded, have become warm. On 3 May 2011, British Foreign Secretary William Hague said that Japan is "one of [Britain]'s closest partners in Asia".[citation needed]

Chronology of Japanese–British relations


  • 1577. Richard Wylles writes about the people, customs and manners of Giapan in the History of Travel published in London.
  • 1580. Richard Hakluyt advises the first English merchants to find a new trade route via the Northwest passage to trade wool and silver with Japan (sending two ships, the George and William, returning unsuccessfully by Christmas the same year).[1]
  • 1587. Two young Japanese men named Christopher and Cosmas sailed on a Spanish galleon to California, where their ship was captured by Thomas Cavendish. Cavendish brought the two Japanese men with him to England where they spent approximately three years before going again with him on his last expedition to the South Atlantic where they were heading to Japan to begin trade relations. They are the first known Japanese men to have set foot in the British Isles.[2]


William Adams (1564–1620)
The 1613 letter of King James I remitted to Tokugawa Ieyasu (Preserved in the Tokyo University archives)
  • 1613. Following an invitation from William Adams in Japan, the English captain John Saris arrived at Hirado Island in the ship Clove with the intent of establishing a trading factory. Adams and Saris travelled to Suruga Province where they met with Tokugawa Ieyasu at his principal residence in September before moving on to Edo where they met Ieyasu's son Hidetada. During that meeting, Hidetada gave Saris two varnished suits of armour for King James I, today housed in the Tower of London.[4] On their way back, they visited Tokugawa once more, who conferred trading privileges on the English through a Red Seal permit giving them "free licence to abide, buy, sell and barter" in Japan.[5] The English party headed back to Hirado Island on 9 October 1613. However, during the ten-year activity of the company between 1613 and 1623, apart from the first ship (Clove in 1613), only three other English ships brought cargoes directly from London to Japan.
  • 1623. The Amboyna massacre was perpetrated by the Dutch East India Company. After the incident England closed its commercial base at Hirado Island, now in Nagasaki Prefecture, without notifying Japan. After this, the relationship ended for more than two centuries.
  • 1625. A number of documents including the Iaponian Charter, are the first published translated Japanese documents into English by Samuel Purchas


  • 1639. Tokugawa Iemitsu announced his Sakoku policy. Only the Dutch Republic was permitted to retain limited trade rights.
  • 1640. Uriemon Eaton the son of William Eaton (a worker at the EIC post in Japan) and Kamezo (a Japanese woman), becomes the first Japanese to join Academia in England as a scholar at Trinity College Cambridge.
  • 1668. 25 February. Henry Oldenburg addresses the Royal Society on the letters of Richard Cocks, particularly noting English trading privileges from the time of Cocks, striking new interest in trade with Japan in England.
  • 1670. John Ogilby publishes the first translation of Atlas Japanensis in London, reprinted in 1671 & 1673[6]
  • 1672. The EIC factories are set up at modern day Taiwan and Tongking with the intention by the British to be used as bases for further trade with Japan
  • 1673. An English ship named Returner visited Nagasaki harbour, and asked for a renewal of trading relations. But the Edo shogunate refused. The government blamed it on the withdrawal 50 years earlier, and found it unacceptable that Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza, who was from Portugal, and favoured the Roman Catholic Church.
  • 1683. Molly Verney begins learning Japanning as a handicraft in London
  • 1703. James Cunninghame FRS attempts to initiate trade with Japan from Cochinchina and the chaplain James Pound in his service notes of VOC activity in Japan until they are attacked by locals in 1705
  • 1713. Daniel Defoe writes of William Adams and his 'famous voyage to Japan' in his satire Memoirs of Count Tariff
  • 1723-25. Hans Sloane send the English court physician Johann Georg Steigerthal to Lemgo to retrieve Engelbert Kaempfer's East Asian collection for his personal library
  • 1727. Johann Caspar Scheuchzer translates and publishes the first edition of Engelbert Kaempfers History of Japan in London
  • 1731. Arthur Dobbs advocates the finding of the North West Passage to 'be able to send a Squadron of ships, Even to force Japan into a Beneficial Treaty of Commerce with Britain.'
  • 1740. Robert Petre, 8th Baron Petre imports the first Camellia japonica into England
  • 1741. The Middleton Expedition is launched to find the Northwest Passage with orders to not engage 'Japaneze ships' until the following year should they come across one, with plans halting to trade or settle Japan owing to the circumstances surrounding the Seven Years' War
  • 1745. Thomas Astley reprints by popular demand the Logbook of William Adams in his A New General Collection of Voyages and Travels ; in Europe, Asia, Africa and America under Nippon[7]
  • 1753. 50 Japanese objects from the Sloane collection acquired by Kaempfer during his residence in Japan are bequeathed to the British Museum
  • 1791. James Colnett sails the HMS Argonaut from Canton to Japan becoming the second unsuccessful attempt at trade with Sakoku Japan.
  • 1796. William Robert Broughton surveys the North-western coast of Japan, becoming shipwrecked on the coast of Miyako-jima
  • 1808. The Nagasaki Harbour Incident: HMS Phaeton enters Nagasaki and lays an unsuccessful ambush on Dutch shipping.
  • 1812. The British whaler HMS Saracen (1812) stopped at Uraga, Kanagawa and took on water, food, and firewood
  • 1813. Thomas Raffles attempts trade with Japan under a British flag to oust Dutch trade monopoly, only for the ooperhoofd to fly the ships under Dutch colours, being rescinded by Governor-General of India on the basis of excessive expense in 1814, also finally being halted in May 1815 by Raffles after the handover of the British colony of Java to the Dutch
  • 1819. The third British ship 'The Brothers' piloted by Captain Peter Gordon, visited Uraga on 17 June seeking to trade with Japan, unsuccessful at Edo to get any treaty
  • 1819. August 3. The first British Whaler HMS Syren begins to exploit the Japan whaling grounds.
  • 1824. 12 English whalers stray ashore looking for food and are apprehended by Aizawa Seishisai leading to new repulsion acts against foreign vessels.
  • 1830. The convict crew of the Cyprus piloted by William Swallow are repelled under the repulsion acts of 1825.[citation needed]
  • 1831. Discussions are held at the British East India Company to hold a base on the Bonin Islands to trade with Japan and the Ryukyuu Archipelago
  • 1832. Otokichi, Kyukichi and Iwakichi, castaways from Aichi Prefecture, crossed the Pacific and were shipwrecked on the west coast of North America. The three Japanese men became famous in the Pacific Northwest and probably inspired Ranald MacDonald to go to Japan. They joined a trading ship to the UK, and later Macau. One of them, Otokichi, took British citizenship and adopted the name John Matthew Ottoson. He later made two visits to Japan as an interpreter for the Royal Navy.
  • 1840. Indian Oak becomes shipwrecked off the coast of Okinawa and a junk is built by Okinawan peoples for the survivors
  • 1842. On the basis of the British naval victory at the First Opium War, the Repel Edicts are renounced by the Bakufu.
  • 1843. Herbert Clifford founds the Loochoo Naval Mission
  • 1850. Bishop Smith arrives at Ryukyu to carry out missionary work


The First Japanese Embassy to Europe, in 1862
Photo at Knightsbridge by W. S. Gilbert, c. 1885

20th century

  • 1902. The Japanese–British alliance was signed in London on 30 January. It was a diplomatic milestone that saw an end to Britain's splendid isolation, and removed the need for Britain to build up its navy in the Pacific.[10][11]
  • 1905. The Japanese–British alliance was renewed and expanded. Official diplomatic relations were upgraded, with ambassadors being exchanged for the first time.
  • 1907. In July, British thread company J. & P. Coats launched Teikoku Seishi and began to thrive.
  • 1908. The Japan-British Society was founded in order to foster cultural and social understanding.
  • 1909 Fushimi Sadanaru returns to Britain to convey the thanks of the Japanese government for British advice and assistance during the Russo-Japanese War.
Guide to the Japan–British Exhibition of 1910.
  • 1910. Sadanaru represents Japan at the state funeral of Edward VII, and meets the new king George V at Buckingham Palace.
  • 1910. The Japan–British Exhibition is held at Shepherd's Bush in London. Japan made a successful effort to display its new status as a great power by emphasizing its new role as a colonial power in Asia.[12]
  • 1911. The Japanese – British alliance was renewed with approval of the dominions.
  • 1913. The IJN Kongō, the last of the British-built warships for Japan's navy, enters service.
  • 1914–1915. Japan joined World War I as Britain's ally under the terms of the alliance and captured German-occupied Tsingtao (Qingdao) in China Mainland. They also help Australia and New Zealand capture archipelagos like the Marshall Islands and the Mariana Islands.
  • 1915. The Twenty-One Demands would have given Japan varying degrees of control over all of China, and would have prohibited European powers from extending their influence in China any further. It is eventually scrapped.[13]
  • 1917. The Imperial Japanese Navy helps the Royal Navy and allied navies patrol the Mediterranean against Central Powers ships.
  • 1917–1935. Close relationships between the two country steadily worsens.[14]
  • 1919. Japan proposes a racial equality clause in negotiations to form the League of Nations, calling for "making no distinction, either in law or in fact, on account of their race or nationality."[15] Britain, which supports the White Australia policy, cannot assent, and the proposal is rejected.
  • 1921. Britain indicates it will not renew the Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902 primarily because of opposition from the United States and also Canada.[16]
  • 1921. Crown Prince Hirohito visited Britain and other Western European countries. It was the first time that a Japanese crown prince had traveled overseas.
  • 1921. Arrival in September of the Sempill Mission in Japan, a British technical mission for the development of Japanese Aero-naval forces. It provided the Japanese with flying lessons and advice on building aircraft carriers; the British aviation experts kept close watch on Japan after that.[17]
  • 1922. Washington Naval Conference concluding in the Four-Power Treaty, Five-Power Treaty, and Nine-Power Treaty; major naval disarmament for 10 years with sharp reduction of Royal Navy & Imperial Navy. The Treaties specify that the relative naval strengths of the major powers are to be UK = 5, US = 5, Japan = 3, France = 1.75, Italy = 1.75. The powers will abide by the treaty for ten years, then begin a naval arms race.[18]
  • 1922. Edward, Prince of Wales travelling on HMS Renown, arrives in Yokohama on 12 April for a four-week official visit to Japan.
  • 1923. The Japanese -British alliance was officially discontinued on 17 August in response to U.S. and Canadian pressure.
  • 1930. The London disarmament conference angers Japanese Army and Navy. Japan's navy demanded parity with the United States and Britain, but was rejected; it maintained the existing ratios and Japan was required to scrap a capital ship. Extremists assassinate Japan's prime minister, and the military takes more power.[19]
  • 1931. September. Japanese Army seizes control of Manchuria, which China has not controlled in decades. It sets up a puppet government. Britain and France effectively control the League of Nations, which issues the Lytton Report in 1932, saying that Japan had genuine grievances, but it acted illegally in seizing the entire province. Japan quits the League, Britain takes no action.[20][21]
  • 1934. The Royal Navy sends ships to Tokyo to take part in a naval parade in honour of the late Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō, one of Japan's greatest naval heroes, the "Nelson of the East".
  • 1937. The Kamikaze, a prototype of the Mitsubishi Ki-15, travels from Tokyo to London, the first Japanese-built aircraft to land in Europe, for the coronation of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth.
  • 1938 Yokohama Specie Bank acquired HSBC.[22]
  • 1939. The Tientsin Incident almost causes an Anglo-Japanese war when the Japanese blockade the British concession in Tientsin, China.
World War II
Japanese air raid on Singapore (8 February 1942)
Post War
Princess of Wales visited both in 1986 and 1995

21st century

  • 2001. The year-long "Japan 2001" cultural-exchange project saw a major series of Japanese cultural, educational and sporting events held around the UK.
  • 2001. JR West gifts a 0 Series Shinkansen (No. 22-141) to the National Railway Museum at York, she is the only one of her type to be preserved outside Japan.
  • 2007. HIM Emperor Akihito pays his second state visit to the United Kingdom.
Second Japan-UK Foreign and Defence Ministerial Meeting on 8 January 2016 in Tokyo.
  • 2011. UK sends over rescue men with rescue dogs and supplies to help the Japanese, after the 11 March 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.
  • 2012. A UK trade delegation to Japan, led by Prime Minister David Cameron, announces an agreement to jointly develop weapons systems.
  • February 2015. Prince William, Duke of Cambridge on an official visit tours areas devastated by the 2011 Tsunami including Fukushima, Ishinomaki, and Onagawa.[33]
  • September 2016. Citing concerns for Japanese owned business operating in the United Kingdom in the wake of the European Union membership referendum, the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs directly issues a 15-page memorandum on its own website requesting that the British Government strike a Brexit agreement safeguarding UK's current trading rights in the European Single Market.[34]
  • December 2018. A new trade deal between Japan and the European Union which is hoped could also act as blue-print for post-Brexit trade between Japan and the UK was approved by the European Parliament.[35]
  • September 2020. The UK and Japan agree a historic free trade agreement — the first made by the UK as an independent trading nation since leaving the European Union.[36]

See also the chronology on the website of British Embassy, Tokyo.[37]

Britons in Japan

Embassy of the United Kingdom in Tokyo

The chronological list of Heads of the United Kingdom Mission in Japan.

Japanese in the United Kingdom

Embassy of Japan in London

The family name is given in italics. Usually the family name comes first in regards to Japanese historical figures, but in modern times not so for the likes of Kazuo Ishiguro and Katsuhiko Oku, both well known in the United Kingdom.

Sadayakko as Ophelia in Hamuretto (1903)


Japanese School in London
In Japan
In the UK
Former institutions in the UK

List of Japanese diplomatic envoys in the United Kingdom (partial list)

Ministers plenipotentiary


List of ambassadors of the United Kingdom to Japan

See also


  1. Samurai William, Giles Milton, 2003
  2. English Dreams and Japanese Realities: Anglo-Japanese Encounters Around the Globe, 1587-1673, Thomas Lockley, 2019, Revista de Cultura, p 126
  3. Stephen Turnbull, Fighting ships of the Far East (2), p 12, Osprey Publishing
  4. Notice at the Tower of London
  5. The Red Seal permit was re-discovered in 1985 by Professor Hayashi Nozomu, in the Bodleian Library. Massarella, Derek; Tytler Izumi K. (1990) "The Japonian Charters" Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 45, No. 2, pp 189–205.
  6. https://www.electricscotland.com/history/nation/ogilby.htm (Accessed 2 March 2021)
  7. See
  8. Thierry Mormanne : "La prise de possession de l'île d'Urup par la flotte anglo-française en 1855", Revue Cipango, "Cahiers d'études japonaises", No 11 hiver 2004 pp. 209–236.
  9. Information about 1885–87 Japanese exhibition at Knightsbridge
  10. Phillips Payson O'Brien, The Anglo-Japanese Alliance, 1902–1922. (2004).
  11. William Langer, The Diplomacy of Imperialism 1890–1902 (2nd ed. 1950), pp. pp 745–86.
  12. John L. Hennessey, "Moving up in the world: Japan’s manipulation of colonial imagery at the 1910 Japan–British Exhibition." Museum History Journal 11.1 (2018): 24-41.
  13. Gowen, Robert (1971). "Great Britain and the Twenty-One Demands of 1915: Cooperation versus Effacement". The Journal of Modern History. University of Chicago. 43 (1): 76–106. doi:10.1086/240589. ISSN 0022-2801. S2CID 144501814.
  14. Malcolm Duncan Kennedy, The Estrangement of Great Britain and Japan, 1917-35 (Manchester UP, 1969).
  15. Gordon Lauren, Paul (1978). "Human Rights in History: Diplomacy and Racial Equality at the Paris Peace Conference". Diplomatic History. 2 (3): 257–278. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.1978.tb00435.x.
  16. J. Bartlet Brebner, "Canada, the Anglo-Japanese alliance and the Washington conference." Political Science Quarterly 50.1 (1935): 45-58. online
  17. Bruce M. Petty, "Jump-Starting Japanese Naval Aviation." Naval History (2019) 33#6 pp 48-53.
  18. H. P. Willmott (2009). The Last Century of Sea Power: From Port Arthur to Chanak, 1894–1922. Indiana U.P. p. 496. ISBN 978-0253003560.
  19. Paul W. Doerr (1998). British Foreign Policy, 1919–1939. p. 120. ISBN 9780719046728.
  20. A.J.P. Taylor, English History: 1914–1945 (1965) pp 370–72.
  21. David Wen-wei Chang, "The Western Powers and Japan's Aggression in China: The League of Nations and" The Lytton Report"." American Journal of Chinese Studies (2003): 43–63. online
  22. Xiao Yiping, Guo Dehong, 中国抗日战争全史 Archived 4 January 2017 at the Wayback MachineChapter 87: Japan 's Colonial Economic Plunder and Colonial Culture, 1993.
  23. Thomas S. Wilkins, "Anatomy of a Military Disaster: The Fall of" Fortress Singapore" 1942." Journal of Military History 73.1 (2009): 221–230.
  24. Bond, Brian; Tachikawa, Kyoichi (2004). British and Japanese Military Leadership in the Far Eastern War, 1941–1945 Volume 17 of Military History and Policy Series. Routledge. p. 122. ISBN 9780714685557.
  25. Peter Lowe, "After fifty years: the San Francisco Peace Treaty in the context of Anglo-Japanese relations, 1902–52." Japan Forum 15#3 (2003) pp 389–98.
  26. Protocole entre le Gouvernement du Japon et le Gouvernement de la République française, 1957. Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan.
  27. "Ceremonies: State visits". Official web site of the British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 6 November 2008. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
  28. Mineko Iwasaki (2012). Geisha of Gion: The True Story of Japan's Foremost Geisha. p. 287. ISBN 9781471105739.
  29. http://linguanews.com/php_en_news_read.php?section=s2&idx=2321
  30. The British-Japanese Parliamentary Group, About us, official site.
  31. Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  32. "UK: Akihito closes state visit". BBC News. 29 May 1998. Retrieved 25 November 2008.
  33. "HRH The Duke of Cambridge to visit Japan and China – Focus on cultural exchange and creative partnerships". princeofwales.gov.uk/. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  34. Parker, George (4 September 2016). "Japan calls for 'soft' Brexit – or companies could leave UK". Financial Times. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  35. "Kamall: UK can replicate new EU-Japan trade deal". Conservative Europe. 12 December 2018.
  36. "UK and Japan agree historic free trade agreement". GOV.UK. 11 September 2020. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  37. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 9 January 2016.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  38. Britain and Japan: Biographical Portraits, Vol. VI, BRILL, 2003, Noboru Koyama p. 393 - 401
  39. Hiromi T. Rogers, 2016, Anjin: The Life and Times of Samurai William Adams as Seen Through Japanese Eyes, Renaissance Books
  40. Gary P Leupp, 2003, Interracial Intimacy in Japan: Western Men and Japanese Women, 1543 - 1900, pp. 56 - 57

Further reading

  • The History of Anglo-Japanese Relations, 1600–2000 (5 vol.) essays by scholars.
  • Akagi, Roy Hidemichi. Japan's Foreign Relations 1542–1936: A Short History (1979) online 560pp
  • Auslin, Michael R. Negotiating with Imperialism: The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy (Harvard UP, 2009).
  • Beasley, W.G. Great Britain and the Opening of Japan, 1834–1858 (1951) online
  • Beasley, W. G. Japan Encounters the Barbarian: Japanese Travelers in America and Europe (Yale UP, 1995).
  • Bennett, Neville. "White Discrimination against Japan: Britain, the Dominions and the United States, 1908–1928." New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 3 (2001): 91–105. online
  • Best, Antony. "Race, monarchy, and the Anglo-Japanese alliance, 1902–1922." Social Science Japan Journal 9.2 (2006): 171–186.
  • Best, Antony. British intelligence and the Japanese challenge in Asia, 1914–1941 (Palgrave Macmillan, 2002).
  • Best, Antony. Britain, Japan and Pearl Harbour: Avoiding War in East Asia, 1936–1941 (1995) excerpt and text search
  • Buckley, R. Occupation Diplomacy: Britain, the United States and Japan 1945–1952 (1982)
  • Checkland, Olive. Britain’s Encounter with Meiji Japan, 1868–1912 (1989).
  • Checkland, Olive. Japan and Britain after 1859: Creating Cultural Bridges (2004) excerpt and text search; online
  • Britain & Japan: Biographical Portraits edited by Hugh Cortazzi Global Oriental 2004, 8 vol (1996 to 2013)
  • British Envoys in Japan 1859–1972, edited and compiled by Hugh Cortazzi, Global Oriental 2004, ISBN 1-901903-51-6
  • Cortazzi, Hugh, ed. Kipling's Japan: Collected Writings (1988).
  • Denney, John. Respect and Consideration: Britain in Japan 1853 – 1868 and beyond. Radiance Press (2011). ISBN 978-0-9568798-0-6
  • Dobson, Hugo and Hook, Glenn D. Japan and Britain in the Contemporary World (Sheffield Centre for Japanese Studies/Routledge Series) (2012) excerpt and text search; online
  • Fox, Grace. Britain and Japan, 1858–1883 (Oxford UP, 1969).
  • Harcreaves, J. D. "The Anglo-Japanese Alliance." History Today (1952) 2#4 pp 252-258 online
  • Heere, Cees. Empire Ascendant: The British World, Race, and the Rise of Japan, 1894-1914 (Oxford UP, 2020).
  • Kowner, Rotem. "'Lighter than Yellow, but not Enough': Western Discourse on the Japanese 'Race', 1854–1904." Historical Journal 43.1 (2000): 103–131. online
  • Langer, William. The Diplomacy of Imperialism 1890–1902 (2nd ed. 1950), pp. pp 745–86, on treaty of 1902
  • Lowe, Peter. Britain in the Far East: A Survey from 1819 to the Present (1981).
  • Lowe, Peter. Great Britain and Japan 1911–15: A Study of British Far Eastern Policy (Springer, 1969).
  • McOmie, William. The Opening of Japan, 1853–1855: A Comparative Study of the American, British, Dutch and Russian Naval Expeditions to Compel the Tokugawa Shogunate to Conclude Treaties and Open Ports to their Ships (Folkestone, Kent: Global Oriental, 2006).
  • McKay, Alexander. Scottish Samurai: Thomas Blake Glover, 1838–1911 (Canongate Books, 2012).
  • Marder, Arthur J. Old Friends, New Enemies: The Royal Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy, vol. 1: Strategic illusions, 1936–1941(1981); Old Friends, New Enemies: The Royal Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy, vol. 2: The Pacific War, 1942–1945 (1990)
  • Morley, James William, ed. Japan's foreign policy, 1868–1941: a research guide (Columbia UP, 1974), toward Britain, pp 184–235
  • Nish, Ian Hill. China, Japan and 19th Century Britain (Irish University Press, 1977).
  • Nish, Ian. The Anglo-Japanese Alliance: The Diplomacy of Two Island Empires 1984–1907 (A&C Black, 2013).
  • Nish, Ian. Alliance in Decline: A Study of Anglo-Japanese Relations, 1908–23 (A&C Black, 2013).
  • Nish, Ian. "Britain and Japan: Long-Range Images, 1900–52." Diplomacy & Statecraft (2004) 15#1 pp 149–161.
  • Nish, I., ed. Anglo-Japanese Alienation, 1919–1952 (1982),
  • Nish, Ian Hill. Britain & Japan: Biographical Portraits (5 vol 1997–2004).
  • O'Brien, Phillips, ed. The Anglo-Japanese Alliance, 1902–1922 (Routledge, 2004), Essays by scholars.
  • Scholtz, Amelia. "The Giant in the Curio Shop: Unpacking the Cabinet in Kipling's Letters from Japan." Pacific Coast Philology 42.2 (2007): 199–216. online
  • Scholtz, Amelia Catherine. Dispatches from Japanglia: Anglo-Japanese Literary Imbrication, 1880–1920. (PhD Diss. Rice University, 2012). online
  • Sterry, Lorraine. Victorian Women Travellers in Meiji Japan (Brill, 2009).
  • Takeuchi, Tatsuji. War and diplomacy in the Japanese Empire (1935); a major scholarly history online free in pdf
  • Thorne, Christopher G. Allies of a kind: The United States, Britain, and the war against Japan, 1941–1945 (1978) excerpt and text search
  • Thorne, Christopher. "Viscount Cecil, the Government and the Far Eastern Crisis of 1931." Historical Journal 14, no. 4 (1971): 805–26. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2638108 online].
  • Thorne, Christopher G. The Limits of Foreign Policy: The West, The League and the Far Eastern Crisis of 1931–1933 (1973) online free to borrow
  • Towle, Phillip and Nobuko Margaret Kosuge. Britain and Japan in the Twentieth Century: One Hundred Years of Trade and Prejudice (2007) excerpt and text search
  • Woodward, Llewellyn. British Foreign Policy in the Second World War (History of the Second World War) (1962) ch 8
  • Yokoi, Noriko. Japan's Postwar Economic Recovery and Anglo-Japanese Relations, 1948–1962 (Routledge, 2004).